Petroleum fuels: petrol, diesel, LPG kerosene and their additives

Characteristics of common petroleum fuels: petrol, diesel, kerosene, LPG, CNG, Butane, Propane and the main petroleum additives

Keep in mind that no fuel is a pure compound. They are all (with some exceptions) a mixture of miscible compounds with complementary properties. The definitions of the characteristics are on fuel definitions

Gasoline (heptane)

Chemical formula:
C7 H16 (approached to 4 7 carbon atoms)

Octane number:
RON 95 / 98

distillation characteristics:
Interval of the order of 30 to 210 ° C
Starting point 27 ° C

Evaporation temperature:
between room temperature and 215 ° C

Density:
0,755 (approached to 0,72 0,78 15 to ° C)

Flash point:
-40 ° C

Calorific power:
10 500 / 11 300 kcal / kg
7 600 / 8 200 kcal / liter
44 000 kJ / kg

Boiling temperature:
-30 To 190 ° C

Auto ignition temperature:
300 °

Steam pressure:
45-90 ° C to 37,8kPa

Vapor density:
3 4 to (air = 1)

Viscosity:
0,5 to 0,75mm² / s 20 ° C

Diesel oil (cetane): diesel, diesel, diesel or fuel oil

Chemical formula:
C21 H44 (approached to 12 22 carbon atoms)

Cetane Number:

distillation characteristics:
initial point> = 150 ° C
distillation range 150 to 380 ° C

Evaporation temperature:
between 180 and 370 ° °

Density:
0,845 (approached to 082 1,85 15 to ° C)

Flash point:
55 ° C

calorific power:
43 000 kJ / kg

Cold resistance:
- 5 ° C the diesel is cloudy

- 15 ° C filterability limit

- 18 ° C pour point

It is the paraffins contained in the diesel that turn into crystals when the temperature drops

Mass suffering:
- Before October 1, 1996 it was 2%

- Since October 1, 1996 it is less than 0,05%

Boiling temperature:
- -180 to 360 ° C

Auto ignition temperature:
250 °

Steam pressure:

Vapor Density:
> 5 (air = 1)

Viscosity:
<7mm² / s 40 ° C

Kerosene (also called "kerosene")

Density:
0,77 to 0,83

Calorific power:
43 105 kJ / kg

Chemical formula:
C10 of H22 to C14 H30

Cold resistance:
-50 ° C

LPG OR LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)

Octane number:
RON 110

Composed of 50% butane and 50% propane (the proportions change according to the seasons 60 to 40 in summer)

Chemical formula:
C3H 8, C4H10

Density:
2,3555 (approached to 0,51 0,58 15 to C [liquid])

Flash point:
<-50 ° C

Auto ignition temperature:
> 400 ° C

Steam pressure:
4 15 bars ° C

Steam pressure:
= <1550kPa to 40 ° C

Density:
> = 530kg / m3 to 15 ° C

Evaporation rate:
1 the atmospheric pressure in liquid generates steam around the 255

Calorific power:
11 000 / 11 850 kcal / kg
6 050 / 6 480 kcal / liter

Sulfur content:
0.02% maximum

Storage Pressure:
4 5 to bars

olfactory detection additive:
mercaptan

Advantages:
Reduction compared to gasoline or diesel engine:
- 30 to 65% NOx and HC
- 40 to 75% CO
- 15% of CO2
No particles
Higher octane number allowing a reduction in consumption on optimized engines (rarely the case)
It is a valued "waste" from petroleum refining or extraction.

CNG (Natural Gas for Vehicles, methane)

Chemical formula:
CH4 (essentially methane, 80% to 97%)

Octane RON:
120

Ignition temperature:
650 ° C

Aspect:
naturally colorless and odorless (odor it is added by chemical addition)

Disadvantage:
The GVN is stored in a gaseous state. It is compressed under a pressure of 200 bars when filling the vehicle tank.
This filling can last from 1 hour to 7 hours depending on the equipment used.

Advantages:
50% less CO and HC, no sulfur or particles.
High octane number allowing an improvement in engine yields.
Stocks are higher than those of crude oil.

Butane

Density: 2,703

Calorific power:
45 600 kJ / kg

Chemical formula:
C4H10

Sulfur content:
0.02% maximum

Boiling temperature:
-5 ° C

liquefaction pressure 15 ° C:
1,5 bar

Auto ignition temperature:
510 ° C

Octane:
95

approximate composition of commercial butane:

N-butane & isobutane *:
94,8%

Propane:
4,2%

butene:
1%

methyl-propane (formerly iso butane)

Propane

Density:
2,008

Calorific power:
46 300 kJ / kg

Chemical formula:
C3H8

Sulfur content:
0.02% maximum

Boiling temperature:
-42 ° C

liquefaction pressure 15 ° C:
7,5 bar

Calorific power:
1 kg: 12,78 13,8 kW kW

M1 3: 23,9 25,9 kW kW

Auto ignition temperature:
490 ° C

Octane:
100

approximate composition of commercial propane

Propane:
94,9%

N butane & isobutane *:
2,39%

Ethene & Ethane:
2%

Propene (C3H6):
0,89%

butene:
0.039%

methyl-propane (formerly iso butane)

Petroleum additives

2 main classes of gasoline additives:
- octane improvers
- detergents (keeping it permanently in a perfect state of cleanliness of the intake circuit limits the adjustments that can be caused by dirt)

Tetraethyl lead:
(used to increase the octane level)

chemical formula:
Pb (C2H5) 4

origin:
additive providing 4 to 5 octane gasoline

associated pollutant:
The lead:
(served to increase the octane rate, and because of its properties lubricated the valve stems and protected the seats by its deposits)
- Was deleted on January 1, 2000 due to pollution.

methyl:
(used to increase the octane level)
used for unleaded petrol

tert-butyl ether:
(used to increase the octane level)
used for unleaded petrol

More:
petroleum products and fossil fuels Forum
Petroleum fuels
Equation combustion and CO2
Synthesis download on the main properties of fuels
conventional petroleum fuels

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