Backyard lazy ground straw

Did67 Lazy Potager: gardening effortlessly with hay

Le kitchen garden lazy : gardening effortlessly with hay. Hay: a super-material "4 in 1"

DR photos: Didier Helmstetter.

Introductory photo: vegetables grown in never-worked soil - no spade, no pickaxe, no hoe, no grelinette… And of course, without using a tiller!

The use of hay, in place of other materials (straw, compost, bark, dead leaves, etc.), is the key to the system. It plays 4 essential roles, which allows the gardener to laze.

First, like any opaque cover (if the thickness is sufficient), it blocks annual weeds, which no longer germinate. No need to hoe or dig.

Then, it maintains an intense biological life in the soil, with in particular earthworms (particularly those of the group of "anecic worms", which dig vertical galleries). They will be numerous and very active because they are well fed. In reality, it is a whole armada of organizations that set to work to "work" and build the soil. This activity results in the secretion of glus. It sets in motion a process of “aggravation” of the soil (it is the opposite of “degradation”). So naturally, without any work, this leads, in a few months, to a soil "which looks like couscous". No need to dig or pass the grelinette. "And above all, do not use a tiller, which massacres the worms by shredding them! "

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Lazy garden: worms and straw
By "scratching" a bit, the worms are everywhere, under the blanket that feeds and protects them ...
The lazy garden: castings
The "turricules" are the indicators of intense activity of a group of worms - the "anecic" worms, which are the true auxiliaries of the gardener, those who dig vertical galleries ... Because there are "worms and worms"!

In addition, the cover provides protection for the soil and its organisms against attack: the “lumps” (aggregates) that form are not degraded by the shock of raindrops; even under severe thunderstorms, and despite the slope, it has no trace of erosion, no fine particles carried away; fertility remains. Protected from wind and sun, the soil is kept moist, which promotes the activity of organisms and the growth of plants. No need to weed to keep the soil loose and airy.

Finally, the decomposition of hay provides the soil, and thereby plants, all the nutrients essential for their growth. And not only the few "major" elements (the famous NPK) that we bring with fertilizers. These elements were taken from the meadow, during the growth of the grass, which absorbed everything a plant needs. Hay is therefore also a "very complete organic fertilizer", with slow release since it must first be broken down, which is done naturally according to the rate of plant growth (the soil organisms that do this follow also the rhythm of the seasons). No need to fertilize! Even manure, "which is only what remains of hay when it has passed through the digestive tract of animals, which have taken their nutrients there, mixed with straw, poorer still", is irrelevant!

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Lazy garden lettuce, home more than organic
Lettuce cultivated without working the soil, without fertilizing, without any treatment… chewable!

This is, in summary, the "natural springs" on which this approach is based ... And that explains why the results are so spectacular.

It should be noted that straw (except using “organic” straw) contains residues from the various treatments undergone by the cereal, including fungicides often sprayed only a few weeks before harvest, shorteners, herbicides, while hay from natural meadows has generally not been treated. "All the more reason to favor hay instead of straw!" "...

Last surprise: "It should also be noted that this way of doing things works much better and faster by setting up your vegetable patch in a meadow or a lawn or even a wasteland". In a "traditional" garden, the soil will have been clubbed and partly poisoned, the population of anecic worms will be low or even nonexistent in the event of intensive use of the tiller, mineral fertilizers and certain pesticides, even "organic" (copper , commonly used in "organic", is a poison for soil, worms, fungi, mycorrhizae; it settles there). In the case of such a soil, it will sometimes be necessary to persevere for half a dozen years before natural mechanisms take over! In a meadow, it will only take 6 months or 1 year for everything to be "top"!

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Bonus: Didier video that presents the Sillon'net, small tool of its conception (with the help of members of the forums of Econology) To cut hay on the ground


Monitoring work on the garden of Didier H. from 2014

Introduction to the Kitchen Garden Sloth

48 comments on "The Kitchen garden of Lazy Did67: gardening effortlessly with hay"

    1. Once installed, the bindweed is indeed a problem. In "classic gardening" as with my way of doing things. Even the controversial brand's highly controversial herbicide promises its eradication. You can try, but it will come back!
      The best, when you can: leave a meadow not "polluted", without bindweed, and not install (by purchase or exchange of plants).
      For my part, half of the garden is pristine and another half is an old garden, once again grassland, "moderately" contaminated. As I spare a lot of work, I devote a few minutes a day to tear it away, as deeply as possible. In two or three years, it is exhausted after having "bonzaïsé". As long as you never give it a chance - as soon as there are leaves, the rhizome is "recharged" in energy.
      The subject is approached several times in econolgie: [use "bindweed" in the site's internal search engine]
      The Lazy Gardener

      1. Hello
        When and how to water in permanent mulch?
        I am new and I find such information indicates that for most plants it is not advisable to wet the leaves
        Is there a video on the subject please?

    2. Mr. Didier,
      I have to recover hay, for my garden, if I recover the cut grass (mowed) along a departmental road (D606), will it be polluted or not?
      Thank you for your reply

      Paul G. (89)

    1. To my knowledge, this is not the region or the weather playing.
      The method is only effective against annual weeds, which are regenerated each year. And this on two conditions: a) maintain a layer permanently, from one end to the other of the year; b) maintain a layer thick enough to "block" the light (I put about twenty cm of hay packed late in the fall or very early to winter out, it is not against the weeds "perennial" , which survive underground from one year to another, in the spring, they produce discharges, from reserves accumulated in an organ: rhizome, tubercle, stump ... Those, I tear them off. loosens after a year of cover, we tear the weed, its roots, its underground organ without difficulty (except the bindweed!) And the perennials then regress very quickly too.
      Finally, to be complete, one must not seek perfection: the first question to ask is "Does it harm my garden? ". I always leave the weeds on the parts not occupied by vegetables: they make biomass that feeds my worms; they maintain living organisms in the soil through the secretion of roots in the "biosphere". Why get tired of sowing green manure?
      The Lazy Gardener

  1. Hello, in the meadow how you put in culture, just not enough hay or you sow in the hay and not in the ground ???? I do not know much. thank you

    1. In the meadow, the first year, I do not sow. I stubble, I cover with a thick layer of hay and I plant (plants raised in buckets), even if the soil is "hard" ... And I tear off some "perennials", which will pierce this. About 6 months later, there is no trace of "herbs". In autumn or the year after, I can sow without problems with my furrows ...
      But it is better always to sow in the soil, in furrows. Since hay is there too to "block" the germination of annuals, it will block the germination of what you sow - it does not make the difference! So you have to open furrows, so that the light comes to the ground, and sow in there, from the second year so.
      You will understand that I have not been possible to explain everything in one article. I invite you to follow on econology, where it is best explained on 140 pages!
      Didier, the Lazy Gardener.

  2. I practice a bit like that; some tillage and lots of mulch (hay, mowing ...).
    I agree with Didier but I 2 problems:
    Blackbirds that systematically disrupt my mulch ... and the seedlings with! (I put more hay, the more I blackbirds). How to hunt blackbirds?
    Moles that are feasting earthworms and transform the field rollercoaster ... by cutting some plants on their way. (I trap a dozen every year, but it always comes).
    It becomes a big problem, to the point where I think temporarily stop mulching.
    I also have a ground invasion of ants and aphids roots in my greenhouse from 2 years, but I do not think it's related to mulching. How to get rid?
    ... But not her little problems!

    1. Sorry, I had zapped at the time:
      - I have the same problem with blackbirds; they are attracted by the "epigee" worms (surface), a dish of choice for them; I tend anti-bird nets over the seedlings; for more developed plants, it does not do any damage anymore ...
      - I did not think that moles can achieve such development and become pests; they are indeed attracted to; they can cut the roots in their path but do not do the same damage as land voles or rats taupiers, I mass; and I trap ...
      - I also had, this year, ants and aphids roots (I think that underground as they do on plants, ants "grow" and milk aphids); I put this on the account of the imbalance created by the excess of rainfall in early summer, the soil too cold and the absence of any full of auxiliaries this year ... The greenhouse is a "complex system", more artificialised. I do not have one yet but I'm thinking about it ...

    2. hello for blackbirds I put the transparent metal, no, I joke, I put wire mesh with a mesh X 75 100 mm I put on the floor. I transplanted the cracks. if I sowed I go from time to time and I run the sheets if necessary. for moles take a bowl to bury rounded edge so that this edge is flush to the ground, put 5cm water so that the mole learn to swim, and especially around water well. attracts moisture to attracting moles. for aphids I use a lot of absinthe infusion + black soap and also tomato manure (leaves or shoots) I'm more compost heap in a corner of the garden I put everything between plants or vegetables and nature does the rest what good tire
      in 2016 I used 400l water, including sprays

  3. For a few weeks I started booting a vegetable garden lazy, see:

    I think we can add an 5th effect (indirectly included in the term "protection" in the 3ieme list Didier but I think it deserves a clarification): it is the effect of thermal protection!

    Indeed; more than the straw used in permaculture, a beautiful hay blanket thermally protects the soil: I notice every time when I drop food composting in the evening under the layer of hay, there are a few degrees of temperature difference! So that said higher temperature said significant biological activity!

    I see a disadvantage: in case of "contamination", the "parasites" (in the broad sense) may not be completely killed by frost in winter!
    The popular thought (perhaps false ???) claims that after a good cold winter, the soil is "decontaminated" ...

    1. Everything will depend on the duration of the cold episode ... This "smooths" the temperature variations. But after 15 days of - 10 °, this will not prevent some cleaning ... For cons, a - 15 ° stealth one or two nights, will have much less effects ...
      The insulation will slow the rise in soil temperature in spring or at the end of winter. It will be rather a defect. It will cultivate patience, before sowing or planting. Biological cycles are long ... My experience, except this year! Was that it tended to catch up with pus then strong growth ... A nuance of course depending on the culture ... For the first radishes, we may have to wait ...

      1. Hi Didier and thank you for sharing your experience. Currently, I am a gardener practicing a rather "bio-intensive" system but I am not satisfied. I'm moving out this winter, which gives me the chance to start from scratch, and your system attracts me a lot. About spring, which was one of my brakes precisely. Do you think it would be possible and profitable to remove the mulch in February and March to warm the soil and prevent stunting? As a "pro", I can hardly afford a delay, and I do not want to cover my garden greenhouse to overcome this delay ...
        Or, use the black tarp over mulching, would it be effective to raise the temperature?
        thank you,

    1. No no. We must "cultivate laziness", so do as little as possible. There, grasses will come into slowed down, the leaves will spoil, the stump remains. You go over it! Without light, it will not return. If you put enough thick, it will not pierce.
      Only perennial will break (dandelion, sorrel, thistle, plantain, bindweed is there ...). It takes you, the first year the snatch as gently as possible through e hay, trying to get the roots or rhizomes or bulbs (depending on the plant).

  4. Hi,
    I have an organic vegetable garden ,, so I work with Grelinette I wanted to know if I had to remove the weeds before putting hay, I'm already doing the same thing, with straw.
    Merci de votre réponse

    1. You drop the Grelinette also ... At best, it's useless. At worst, it's a bit harmful (unless the spade certainly, far less than the tiller, of course) ...

  5. Didier Hello, thank you for sharing your knowledge, you only put light for free, or just you alone speak.
    It's been a year since I've been thinking of changing my life, for personal reasons, and therefore becoming a market gardener and also selling "derivatives" of my crops. for a year I look at all the videos having attraction to permaculture, and I make a sad and reassuring observation: sad because you are the only one in France (I only watch French videos) to expose in a scientific way (from part of your job as an agronomist) the operation of a basement, and reassuring because you have dared to do it, and that we can finally learn. So I think I can say that in terms of permaculture (a bit outdated in our context) you are without a doubt the most perfect teacher. You may not have the experience of associated or other plantations, but the basics of a perfect basement are only brought to light by you scientifically.
    All lovers of permaculture will see Damiens Dekarts and other beautiful people who
    some experience of permaculture and we (fans) are dreaming. They make us want to try ... but you give us you the scientific explanation of how to get there: becoming earthworm breeder and develop mycelium. Finished grolinette or other absurdities as views among those who claim permaculteurs. Without you the ointment, but thank you, I would say only one thing: the concept of permaculture has been 1928 in Japan (to believe internet), but the real strength of this permaculture director, the first who highlighted fundamental for there (breeder worms) is a Didier67 called in 2016, with hay ... I see you too humble to say so publicly, but upon reflection, I think it is as you endossiez the real costumes that you really deserve: Inventor of the econology. it is simply the shape was the most perfect of permaculture .... Permaculture basic econologic.
    Didier For all this, thank you, in the name of humanity, I thank you doubly.
    Signed a man who finally has the answers to his questions.

  6. Hello didier. Adept since always of the garden more than natural. I'm never treated anyway .leherbage very little for me. I share my garden with "weeds" suddenly I raise the passage of manifold papillions with the plantain and I am delighted to see the feed thistle on some thistles that I leave to them. cleaning my animals (rabbit goats) direct to the garden without going through the compost, and all summer grass clippings on top. I never return my soil. in any case I do not have the strength) I pass on the remarks of my neighbors al 'old, to 5h of the mat in the process of desherber a garden already nickel of a soil to return to the jurasic and treat a to almost all in the case where I have often beaten them with more beautiful vegetables.
    And this summer I have discovered your videos, a revelation to me. Finally, scientific explanation is that spanked in my garden without knowing. So this year I did things well. 20 cm good hay across the garden. I have still kept the manure of animals for artichokes and rhubarb.
    Me remains the greenhouses? Even in services, I still eat tomatoes, peppers and lettuce.
    Hay also? I still have a good turf layer of summer. It must irrigate to press the hay? In winter the greenhouse is empty .the dry land and waiting for spring ....

    personal note, I my straw strawberry with fern of ground wood, a haven for earthworms.

    1. Sorry, I just skipped this discussion.
      I do not arroserais greenhouse. Keep as much dry hay. Do not wet vegetables. I arroserais plants only to drop by drop, under the hay in front of each tomato plant, eggplant, etc ...
      But I use round bales, which I held. Hay is so compact and the rest if we carefully place without ventilation.
      For the loose hay, I tasserais as best as possible, patting with a fork, or advancing on two boards on which I walk ...
      But I do not have a greenhouse yet, so I can not "guarantee" - I use the conditional ...

  7. Hi,
    Thank you for all these comments ... I discovered and confirmed what I practiced more or less well, so it will help me.
    I look forward to the response to comment Stéphanie of 16 / 11 for greenhouse. I have one too, and even tomatoes but it's true, in other years it remains empty and dry land.
    I'm going to tackle me to extend hay everywhere. A small hope to smother clover invading my garden since 3 years.
    thank you,

  8. Hello,
    This year I'm going to make "a kitchen garden lazy", I look at all your videos and I find this wonderful gardening. I have a question about slugs. My garden is infested. Despite the beer traps, and the slug harvest every night. How are you doing? Do you have a good idea?
    A big thank-you

  9. With what enthusiasm I find you I'm in Perpignan, I'll do.
    In this context the south, the sun and dehydration, how to manage the necessary humidity .Merci your response and your knowledge

    1. I do not support humidity - in the sense of humidity. My vegetables are exposed sunlight, this garden sloping to the west and south-facing (I have a hedge to the north). While in Perpignan intensity can be a little higher, I do not think it's a big problem, provided that the soil remains moist.
      And there, the permanent cover of the soil will play its role, by keeping the soil moist and by protecting the water reserves (within certain limits, in 2015, year of drought with us, I put "drop-in" "plants consume water and even with systems of ground cover, it happens that the reserve eventually empty, as the tank of the most economical car will end up being empty if you roll without ever doing the full, no "miracle" possible).
      Is added the presence of fungi (see video on Youtube the same):
      - mushrooms have a "strength" of water extraction about 6 times greater than that of our plants (our plants arrive at a suction of about 15 bars, the mushrooms at about 90, the record-breaking mushroom of the world at most of 900!
      - they "store" the water in their filaments
      - thus the association "mushroom - roots", called mycorhize, gives a capacity of extraction and remarkable retention of the water, which benefits the plants [on the internet, in relation with the truffle, to make a research on "the burned This area under a tree where the grass dries up because the filaments of the truffle "sting" the water].
      If we had shade is by alternating tall plants (shrubs), planted in north-south rows that I would. As, vegetables between these rows are in the shade the 3 / 4 the day.
      But never forget that the sun is the energy of plants! So do not make it an "enemy" - wrongly (with the exception of a few rare shade plants). This is one of the many "bullshit" that a lot of gardeners do.

  10. I do not have a "big" slug problem, except last year, with the wet two months of May and June. I think the following elements contribute to it:
    - I maintain grassy aisles; these are shelters for the most important predators of slugs, beetles (often these glowing insect, bright green), but also rove beetles (not the legendary hedgehog!) ...
    - No obstacles: no edges, no plates or anything that may upset the circulation of these auxiliaries.
    I usually have a few slugs off the winter: they operate faster than insects; then everything falls into place, which means that I always some slugs, which limited damage, but suddenly, my assistants have also always room. Especially do not aim to eradicate ...
    My main principle is that in order not to have parasites, it is necessary to "raise" these parasites; it attracts auxiliaries ...
    So I am installing, a few meters from my garden, a "hedgehog garden" (in the hope that there is one that occupies it), with plants very attractive to slugs: hostas , carnations of india, sunflower, blue thistle (Eryngium) ... I always try to combine two or three things: utility / beauty / biodiversity (the blue thistle is very pretty, it makes beautiful bouquets, the sunflower is nice too and feed the birds, etc ...).
    Now, one of the problems with slugs is that there are a lot of species, each with its own "diet". I found a big orange "sprawled" on a carnation in the middle of the day, but when I put carnations between carrots to attract the slugs, the little whitish snails laughed at them and rushed on the carrots; I had to pick them up by hand, at dusk ...
    I do not know yet about the ecology of slugs ... I do not necessarily have the solution ... Also note that the "composts" (poorly managed) are often refuges, because some species like the organic matter in early decomposition…

    1. Hi,

      For slugs, all is said = the best way to manage them is in my opinion to have some harmonious ecosystem and the garden eventually balance out. I also think that the presence of hedges and shrubs allows the birds to roost, they are formidable predators.
      But you must also learn to know the beast, for that I invite you to watch Hervé Coves' hallucinating video "holistic management of slugs" on youtube. You will not see slugs the same way!

      1. Hello,
        Indeed, this video helps to have a different perspective on the slugs, and therefore on the kitchen garden ...

    2. Hello Didier,

      It's been a few years since I use the BRF successfully.
      Since 2 years, I'm your method of mulching ... with very good results if I could make slug jam.
      It works of thunder for earthworms, surface furnishings and all these living species that go with, .... including different slugs and other plant nibblers. And here is the cat. Everything that grows is nibbled at night ... while I sleep.
      They will quietly digest in the hay day. Neither seen nor known !
      I've never seen that ; Clusters of slugs that zigzate potato plants, radishes, beans, zucchini, eggplant, garlic from the Himalayas, .... Everything goes and no plant has time to grow.
      Since 2 weeks, the lazy method (and daily showers) forces me to make pruning slicicides and 22h snail shots late into the night. The lazy garden prevents me from sleeping! A height; -)
      The population has greatly diminished, but the leaves of the plants continue to be punctured; I can not determine by what. Small white slugs impossible to secateuriser? Earwires? Brown slugs that come out after my nocturnal passage? I do not stop replanting.
      Another problem last year: The furniture is on the surface but leaves the basement very compact ... which loves rats hit for their galleries. My method: Give some grinette through the hay, to "shake" the basement and break the existing galleries, mainly around the kitchen garden. Wireworm rats do not like non-stable soils.
      I confirm for sowing under a thin layer of straw; It does not grow.

      Arvi Haute-Savoie

  11. Good evening Didier

    I discovered your video yesterday. Since I devour them one after the other.

    My garden is an ancient coniferous forest on sand. This makes 13 years I started with persistent deciduous or not. For ten years I 2 about mowing once a year. Since 2 years, I see a net growth of fungi (well visible), which seems to me to be a good sign.

    The problem is that if I develop crops more hay on site. The nearby forest full of ferns, I will wish to know your opinion for its use in coverage.



  12. Hello Didier,
    I am passionate about your videos and I will very soon start my vegetable garden ... Except I'm intalled at The Island REUNION where there are only 2 seasons, offset 6 months compared to the metropolis, without fear of a hypothetical gel ... By cons, pests and diseases ....
    Here, I can not find hay natural grasslands but hay grasses sown on land almost horizontal volcanic slag ... But there is an invasive legume (Desmodium intortum) which can go up to 1 m high : together with hay, it should do the trick ... (it is nicknamed glue adhesive for his amorous seed ...)

    I have huge problems to find some seeds (nettles, comfrey ...)

    I would report my tests and will send photos and comments ...

    Soon for your next videos ..

    thanks again


  13. Hello Didier,
    For a few months I'm learning on your videos and in November 2016, I decided to get into the garden of the lazy.
    I'm 14 1 boards mx m with 5 50 cm between for the passage, I covered all of 10 cm oak leaves my 10 cm wood and hay. All my former vegetable garden was covered and I took my tiller in my barn. A I also did tests to 2 boards 1.20 4 mx m bulging of 30 cm in the middle. To start I grew garlic, shallots and onions in bins of bulbs and I just put them away in the hay on the boards. There fortnight I have sown the beans by removing the hay by pushing beans 2 cm into the ground and putting above the ground, I would put the hay against the foot as they have pushed.
    Thank you to you for giving us so nicely all these details, for me, it starts to make me happy I stored the tiller.

  14. FYI, bulbs of garlic, onion, shallot do not fear the cold. You can also put them directly in the ground, under the hay ... They will "pierce" when it will sing to them. Just like tulips, daffodils, daffodils ... The optimization of laziness is not so easy: too often, we remain "convinced" that it is absolutely necessary to make "manipulations", in short, to complicate the Existence ... A little drug whose weaning is not so easy!

  15. Hello here two weeks since I discovered your videos and thank you for sharing ,,, I am a lady of 58 years until the I limited myself radish garden salads and qq tomato plants and eggplant and squash ... I have the place but neither the health and motivation to have a garden as disciplined as my neighbors! ,, I have litter compost straw and hay sheep ... so I have it spread over part of the garden that was in grass but this is n may not be the right time! ,,, that you think? .. even if I do not cultivate at least the grass does not grow back or less ... .I m inspired by your experience and I'll keep you informed. ... thank you to you because you raised a motivation! ,, thank you

  16. Hello Didier

    What a pleasure to read, now I'll attack me for watching your video. A question, our house and its small garden (120m2) lies on top of a small hill of 650m. We often windy and I'm afraid the hay shall rejoice in nature when it will blow. I plan to put a net 50mm square mesh to flatten the ground hay. Is it a good idea? Thank you in advance for your reply

  17. Hello,
    I discovered with great interest your videos, thank you very much for this valuable information.
    Am I to understand that we can, without regret, to abandon the idea of ​​composting since you suggest to deposit food waste, and other adventises directly on the ground?


    Christian Haerlingen
    Experimenter permaculture past year in the region of Liège in Belgium.

  18. Hello, I am writing from Canada. I'm stumble upon your videos. As I try to simplify my life as I get older, your methods have captured my interest!
    I've already used straw on flowerbeds to control weeds, but to my dismay, hay seeds have begun to germinate everywhere, and I've had weeks to remove them!
    Then you will understand my fear of putting hay directly into my kitchen garden!
    So my question is: have you ever had this problem and how to pinpoint it?
    Thank you and good summer gardening and idleness!

  19. Hello didier,
    How to start? My garden is for the moment a prairie composed of tall grasses, nettles, brambles ...
    If I understand correctly, I have to mow flat and keep the hay so created to cover my ground. I have to wait for how long? Three months, more?

  20. Hello Didier, I did not know the kitchen garden of the lazy a week ago and I am very interested. I would like to produce my vegetables (courgettes, obergines ...), my fruits mainly on trees, my legumes (lentils, chickpeas, peas ...), some oilseeds (sunflower, rapeseed ...) and cereals (wheat, maize). And 4 hens for eggs. Only milk and meat would be bought on the market, everything else produced at home. In your opinion, would 400 to 500 m2 field be enough and how long should I spend there each day? I had also thought of a greenhouse to extend crop seasons and grow on vertical structures with compost-based crop and garden residues including straw mixed in. What do you think about parasites and productivity?

  21. Hello,
    I read some remarks about growing bulbs: onions, shallots and garlic on hay,
    I really want to get going, are there any more back? and advice

  22. Hello Didier
    Thank you for all your good advice
    You told us one day (at Biobernai) of a John I think, to provide organic hay.
    Where can I find it?
    Thank you

  23. Hello,
    Can straw be replaced by mowing grass?
    I made it last fall and this spring by raising this turf I discovered 20 big cockchafer larvae (big as a little finger) instead of worms !!!
    Living in the mountains, it is difficult for me to find straw.
    Thank you in advance for your answer

  24. Hello,
    This spring, the garden was covered at the end of October hay, also very difficult to find hay since the harvest for farmers has been lower this year given the weather (Limousin). I had completed with straw but I realize that the light passes more easily so perennials show their tips! Panic too, because as it is the first year, I tag to sow, transplant the first vegetables! I have to transplant shallots onions, do I make a furrow, or I transplant by making a hole each time for each plant ?? If I do not spread the hay, will the earth be warm enough for it to flourish ??? your answer will comfort me, thanks in advance
    Neophyte gardeners for this practice

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