Aviation testing of Makhonine fuel

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Aviation testing of Makhonine fuel




by Christophe » 05/01/07, 14:01

A while ago I posted 1 scanned article on tests carried out on Makhonine fuel: https://www.econologie.com/makhonine-es ... carburant/

As a reminder, the Makhonine fuel is a fuel resulting from the liquefaction of the Coal (even of poor quality), it is a bit of Fischer-Tropsh before time (the tests date from 1926). In addition to being very economical and entirely independent of petroleum, this fuel also had very good physicochemical properties including a high fire / flash point (non-flammable at room temperature) and a density close to that of water. : Shock:

Its use also apparently allowed (compared to the essences of the time) a consumption gain of 30%.

More: https://www.econologie.com/makhonine-ca ... n-charbon/

The question you are probably asking yourself (like me) is this: if this fuel really had the properties and advantages described in these pages, hasn't pkoi been as successful as it should be?
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by Capt_Maloche » 05/01/07, 15:00

Here is a summary concerning the life of this type and his inventions on it website

It would be too good to be true
I will still ask my father-in-law ex engineer at Elf (there are still a lot of people in chemistry with oil tankers, it remains to be seen whether they are ready to break their silence on certain points)
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by Christophe » 05/01/07, 15:06

Well it is clear that it is "the (almost) perfect fuel" starting from biomass it would be ...

There is a complete file on econo here:
https://www.econologie.com/makhonine-ca ... n-charbon/

But difficult to read ... : Cry:
Last edited by Christophe the 05 / 01 / 07, 15: 10, 1 edited once.
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by abyssin3 » 05/01/07, 15:07

I found this link on the liquefaction of coal (very similar) with some relationships with the gasifier itself (CO production):
http://oleocene.org/wiki/index.php?titl ... A9fi%C3%A9

And this one on different ways to liquefy coal:
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/ ... 1SEC848024
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by Christophe » 05/01/07, 15:11

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by abyssin3 » 05/01/07, 15:12

Oooops: I forgot that:
The hydrogen produced by gasification of coal can power a fuel cell.

Guess who is among the authors ... : Shock:
http://sfp.in2p3.fr/Debat/debat_energie ... HARBON.htm
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by Christophe » 05/01/07, 15:23

abyssin3 wrote:Oooops: I forgot that:
The hydrogen produced by gasification of coal can power a fuel cell.


Bravo ... still powder in the eyes because the CO2 released by such a transformation is enormous ...

Better to burn oil ...

For the author, no, I don't see : roll:
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by abyssin3 » 05/01/07, 17:33

TotalFinaElf
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by Christophe » 05/01/07, 17:47

Really? And who is it? : roll:
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China: 100 billion euros to liquefy coal




by Christophe » 09/01/07, 14:42

Here, speaking of liquefaction:

Beijing is mobilizing 100 billion euros to liquefy coal and meet 10% of needs in 2020.


CHINESE have little oil, but they have a great idea (let's go to Cesar ...) : literally transform their huge coal reserves into black gold. Beijing has just allocated the colossal envelope of 100 billion euros to a liquefaction program. The aim is to provide 10% of the fuels and petroleum products that the locomotive of the world economy should consume in 2020.


It is on the Dongcheng deposit, south of Baotou (Inner Mongolia), that this almost Faustian bet takes shape. In the basement, the giant tunnel boring machines of Shenhua, the leading Chinese coal company, nibble day and night on an exceptional vein 1 meters thick. On the surface, 20 workers are finalizing the first phase of a liquefaction plant which will soon have five. The objective is to produce 8 million tonnes of oil in 000 and 1 million tonnes in 2008. The state-owned company is seriously considering launching its own network of service stations ...


The Chinese government plans to build several of these petroleum "production centers" in other major coal regions, from western Xinjiang province to the upper reaches of the Yellow River. A network of pipelines will deliver hydrocarbons directly to the industrial cities of northern China, Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan.


But what makes Beijing planners of the State Commission for Development and Reform (NDRC) dream also brings out a smell of sulfur. Historically, the industrial conversion of coal to oil has been the last resort of regimes surrounded or punished, such as Nazi Germany and apartheid South Africa.


Today, it is the sustainable addiction of the Chinese to the dirtiest form of energy that worries Westerners. Directly or indirectly, coal provides two-thirds of the energy consumed in the country (68% in 2005). Beijing is making striking efforts to develop civil nuclear power, hydroelectricity and wind power. But whatever the scenario for the first half of this century, coal still meets most of the needs.


Coal-oil will dirty the atmosphere twice


Omnipresent and inexpensive, it has already propelled the People's Republic to the rank of the world's leading producer of sulfur dioxide (SO2). He is the identified responsible for acid rain and the “smog” in which the biggest Chinese cities are suffocating. As of 2009, if we follow the OECD, the same coal will put China ahead of the United States for carbon dioxide (C02) emissions, n ° 1 in greenhouse gases and guilty of global warming. Coal-oil will dirty the atmosphere twice: at the time of its industrial liquefaction, then at the outlet of the exhaust pipes.


Pollution ? "We'll see later," replied an engineer without blinking on the Inner Mongolia site. For the five production units, the Shenhua company chose the direct liquefaction technique. Unlike the oil synthesis developed by the South African group Sasol, the Chinese recipe makes it difficult to control the release of CO2 into the atmosphere.


"It's a cost issue," said Zhang Yuzhuo, Shenhua's No. 2. The state-owned company wants to make its facilities profitable as soon as a barrel of oil exceeds $ 30. Sasol, which has just won the development of two liquefaction lines in Shanxi and Ningxia, places the threshold at 40 dollars. The barrel sails above 50.


In the NDRC forecasts, the liquefaction of coal should provide 30 million tonnes of oil in 2020, or 10% of Chinese needs boosted by the boom in automobile traffic and industrial petrochemicals. This is roughly a third of what China imports today. In the country's energy balance, this is also much more than what the spectacular revival of civil nuclear power illustrated by the recent defeat of Areva against Westinghouse will bring.


For Beijing, the urgency and security of supply comes first. As voracious as it seems in foreign gas and oil, China remains surprisingly economical in imported energy. Its dependence is evaluated between 8 and 12%, against more than 90% for Japan or South Korea.

Coal and the 140 to 180 billion tonnes contained in the Chinese subsoil - more than seventy years of extraction at the current rate - are a reassuring presence for a power that has not yet abandoned all its autarkic chimeras. And if it is possible that part of this inert mass is almost magically transmuted into oil, it is even better.


http://www.lefigaro.fr/eco/20070109.FIG ... trole.html
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