The treatment of motor vehicle end of life
After use, motor vehicles are crushed with household electrical goods and demolition scrap for metal recovery. This generates Shredding Residues (RB). 25% of the initial weight of a vehicle are in the RB, a third plastics. RB These were previously landfilled. This solution is not acceptable now.
To solve this problem, all manufacturers of the French automotive industry, supported by the Ministries of Industry and Environment, signed in March 10 1993 a Framework Agreement, according to which they agreed to progressively reduce amounts of waste landfilled. The aim is to reduce the current percentage of 25% of the weight of end of life vehicles, in 15 2002% and in 5 2015%.
For this, a treatment regimen in four phases ELV (ELV) was established:
- Pretreatment: Vehicle Safety commissioning (airbags ...), pollution (batteries, oil, coolant, brake fluid, fuel, windshield washer fluid ...)
- Dismantling: selection of parts for reuse (eg Starter) or for the recycling of materials (eg PP in the bumper or PVC coverings for seats and dashboards)
- Crushing: recovery of ferrous and non-ferrous
- Treatment of RB: material recovery of mineral waste (glass ...), energy recovery of remaining organic materials (rubber ...) or, in the future, chemical or mechanical recycling.
In Europe, the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on end-of life vehicles (Directive 2000 / 53 / EC, OJ of 21 / 10 / 2000 269 L / 34) states in Article 7.4 that type-approved vehicles in accordance Directive 70 / 156 / EEC and placed on the market from a date not later in 01 / 01 / 2005 should be reusable and / or recyclable to a minimum 85% by weight of the vehicle and will be reusable and / or recoverable to 95% by weight vehicle.
There is no systematic hierarchy of waste recovery options. Each situation must be examined case by case to determine the best solution for recovery. Schematically, the distribution of 100 kg of plastic parts present in vehicles (1990 models) allows the following options:
- # 20 10 kg for large parts (bumpers, door panels, seat covers and instrument panels, fuel tanks ...): mechanical recycling after dismantling is desirable enhancement option.
- 80 1500 kg representing parts of about 50 g: these parts are usually too small to be dismantled and recycled. Another type of valuation must be sought.
In the latter case, energy recovery is preferable waste management option because for very small parts, disassembling time is too long for the valuation by mechanical recycling is economical. The cost of dismantling labor actually exceeds the value of recovered materials.