Developing an alternative to conventional energies such as gas, coal or oil is a major challenge of the 21st century. On the one hand, these energies are exhaustible, on the other hand, they are very polluting in CO, CO2, NOx. Hydropower, wind power, solar power or biomass represent alternative energy production solutions that have the advantage of being renewable, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, emitting little or no energy. no greenhouse gases and pollutants. These energies therefore contribute to the ambition of sustainable development.
France has largely exploited its hydraulic potential, but remains very behind in other areas. Yet its potential in all areas is consistent. France has the 2e wind farm in Europe. This situation is also linked to the choice that was made of 'all nuclear' in the 1970 years. Although this choice may appear relevant in many aspects (production capacity, greenhouse gases, etc.), it nevertheless poses significant problems in terms of ultimate waste management, flexibility and technological risk.