Cryptococcus gattii

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humus
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Cryptococcus gattii




by humus » 11/10/21, 16:51

History of changing the covid : Mrgreen:
We may have our sudden drop in demographics predicted by the Meadows team, pushing back the limits of nature.
A new fungal disease, originating in Australia but helping anthropogenic global warming and helping globalization, it is now found on Vancouver Island in Canada and the United States.
When will Cryptococcus gattii come to Europe?
Most fungi do not survive at 37 ° C, which is good for humans.
Cryptococcus gattii survives and laughs when a blood macrophage tries to destroy it because it knows how to resist natural amoebae, amoebae that strongly resemble macrophages in our blood system.
It will start to be annoying if our forests get infected.
The confinement we know.
https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/cry ... auses.html

For those wondering what the consequences of RCA may be, here is one more, for North America for now.

On this fungal disease, from this sequence:
1 x
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GuyGadeboisTheBack
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Re: Cryptococcus gattii




by GuyGadeboisTheBack » 12/10/21, 15:57

Cryptococcosis is a serious fungal infection. It occurs in immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical form of this infection is meningoencephalitis, which is fatal without treatment.

Causes
Cryptococcosis is a serious fungal infection. It occurs in immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical form of this infection is meningoencephalitis, which is fatal without treatment.
Symptoms of the disease

The most common clinical form of cryptococcosis is disseminated meningoencephalitis (in more than 60% of cases, and in more than 80% of cases in patients with HIV infection). The symptoms are variable: headache and moderate fever occur in more than 70% of patients while dizziness, irritability, ideation disorders, convulsive seizures, obnubilation or even coma, cranial nerve paralysis, motor deficit can appear in 20 to 50% of cases. The short course of symptoms and signs of intracranial hypertension are poor prognosis. Without treatment, the progression to aggravation and death is inevitable. If treated, early mortality is still around 27% in non-HIV patients and 14% in HIV patients.

The infection can also be localized in the lungs, the pneumonia being manifested by nonspecific signs (cough and moderate fever), or to any other organ. Skin lesions, resulting from the dissemination of yeast in the blood, may appear as painless papules, which may ulcerate. Some patients are asymptomatic. The diagnosis is established by the demonstration on direct examination or by histology of yeasts surrounded by a clear halo in the tissues or liquids collected, by the identification of Cryptococcus neoformans in these same samples and / or by the detection of the specific antigen in serum and / or cerebrospinal fluid. Rapid tests have been developed to diagnose bedside infection.

Epidemiology
Cryptococcosis is responsible for 15% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -related deaths, the majority of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. It is a typically opportunistic infection in patients immunosuppressed by an HIV infection with a CD4 count less than 200 / mm3 or in patients with another immunosuppression (organ transplantation, system disease, hemopathy). The share of cryptococcosis linked to HIV is currently around 40% in France.
Transmission

The fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is present in the environment and it is probably through inhalation that contamination takes place. Direct inoculation through wounds of the skin can cause skin lesions such as whitlow or cellulitis, or even spread in the event of immunosuppression. But the infection is not transmitted from human to human apart from the rare observations described after organ transplantation. Rare cases have been reported after cleaning surfaces heavily contaminated with pigeon droppings, and close contact with such birds is therefore not recommended for immunocompromised people. Cryptococcus gattii is found in plants such as eucalyptus and also transmitted by inhalation.

Treatment
Antifungal treatment for several weeks should be implemented. It is based in severe forms (meningoencephalitis, severe pneumopathies) on the combination of liposomal amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine, followed by fluconazole at high dosage. In case of intracranial hypertension, lumbar evacuating punctures are also performed. Clinical improvement is generally slow, one to two weeks, and remission is only achieved after at least 6 weeks of initial treatment. Sequelae may persist after recovery. Prophylactic treatment for relapses is routine in patients with HIV until clear and stable immune reconstitution has been achieved by antiretroviral therapy.

At the Institut Pasteur
The Molecular Mycology Unit (directed by Françoise Dromer), also National Reference Center for Invasive and Antifungal Mycoses (CNRMA), contributes to a large therapeutic research program in Africa in collaboration with ANRS and St Georges University in London . The CNRMA is responsible for the epidemiological surveillance of cryptococcosis in France and characterizes the strains isolated in France.

The Molecular Mycology Unit is also working on the virulence and dormancy factors of Cryptococcus neoformans, on the pathophysiology of the infection and on the development of new tests.

The RNA Biology of Fungal Pathogens Unit (headed by Guilhem Janbon) studies the extracellular vesicles that are produced by this fungus and in particular their roles in the regulation of resistance to antifungals and their potential use as vaccine candidates.

June 2021

https://www.pasteur.fr/fr/centre-medica ... ptococcose
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