The pollution of maritime transport

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The pollution of maritime transport




by moinsdewatt » 22/07/15, 19:35

Pollution of most dangerous shipping as motor transport

The Monde.fr | Laetitia Van Eeckhout By 22.07.2015

Tuesday 21 July, while the Minister of Ségolène Royal ecology decided to postpone its ads in the fight against air pollution, environmental associations put the spotlight on a little-known source of emissions of pollutants: France Nature Environment (FNE ) and the German NGO NABU launched from the port of Marseille, an awareness campaign on pollution from shipping. A more dangerous pollution than the automobile transport.

Merchant ships as cruise ships mostly use as fuel heavy fuel oil, a byproduct of petroleum, which emits large quantities of fine particles, nitrogen oxides, and especially sulfur oxides. This pollutant is one of the main factors behind the rain acidification problem and is very toxic to human health.

In a study published in early June, the University of Rostock and the research center Helmholtz Zentrum German Environment Munich establish an unambiguous link between the exhaust freighters and serious diseases. Originally lung and severe cardiovascular diseases, shipping emissions, according to this study, 60 000 cause premature deaths per year in the EU. Cost European health services: 58 billion.

Untaxed fuels
Residents of coastal areas are most at risk, according to these researchers estimate that half of the air pollution due to particles in coastal and port areas comes from ships emissions. Data from the Public Health Supervisory Service Long Beach in the district of Los Angeles (USA) revealed that people living near the port enclave experiencing levels of asthma, cardiovascular disease and depression senior 3% on average than other city residents.

If measures were taken to reduce pollutants from diesel for cars and trucks, marine fuels, more toxic, remain surprisingly poorly regulated. "The marine fuels have a sulfur content of more than 3 000 times the fuel used by cars and trucks. However, road transport pays fuel taxes and shipping uses untaxed fuels, "says Adrien Brunetti, environmental health network coordinator of FNE.

The regulation in this area is essentially international. MARPOL (marine pollution) established by the International Maritime Organization has implemented emission controlled areas in which the fuel sulfur levels are regulated (Sulphur Emissions Control Areas, SECAs). Thus, since January 1er, in Manche, in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, as in almost all US and Canadian coastal areas, ships can not use fuel containing more than 0,1% sulfur. "In the Mediterranean, where rates can be up to 4%, this threshold will only apply from 2020 or 2025" says France Nature Environment, denouncing the lack of willingness of states participating in the Marpol Convention , including France.

The France formal notice
The 29 April the Hexagon has also seen sent by the European Commission a notice for delay in transposing the Directive "sulfur" regulating emissions from ships. Declension of MARPOL, this directive, adopted in October 2012 requires Member States to respect the limits thresholds in the SECAs. Transposition was to be completed on June 18 2014.

It was not until the energy transition law for France to take the first initiative to fight against the pollution of ships. The text to be finally voted on Wednesday 22 July provides that "the State promotes, particularly by supporting pilot projects, the installation of liquefied natural gas distribution systems and electrical power to berthed in ports for ships and boats. "

"Expensive for public finances, this type of installation is only intended to limit emissions from ships at berth. It does not address the heart of the problem. The priority must be to change the fuel commercial boats. Although shipping going on diesel used for cars, is already substantially reduce their pollution, "notes Adrian Brunetti, who observes that throughout the world, initiatives are taken by the port authorities to encourage the reduction of sulfur in fuels. In the ports of Seattle or Houston for example, compensation is paid to owners for the additional costs entailed by the fuel change. The port of Singapore, it modulates its port taxes according to fuel type.

It is already possible to limit the emissions of sulfur emitted by the cargo by filtering their exhaust gases. Cruise ships in particular are circulating without any filtering system. "Particulate filters are installed on motor vehicles. Why, even calls Alain Brunetti, no he will not even for ships, while fuels are far more pollutants? "

http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2 ... _3244.html
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by chatelot16 » 22/07/15, 20:58

there is no possible filtering easily against the suffering

suffers from the fact the fuel of the sulfuric acid in the exhaust making it impossible filtering other polution

the first progress would be to use well refined diesel ... but the current Maode is to put in Gargo heavy fuel oil, which concentrates all cochonerie we do not put fuel in the road ... finally the total polution remained the same, the more reduced the polution of the car the more you give the boat to cochonerie

it's not that bad because the boat above the ocean poluent inabité month worse than polluting the city centers ... remains the problem of port and some narrow place or spend a lot of boat

to use a clean fuel oil in the ports and the heavy fuel oil off seems logical to me
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by dede2002 » 25/07/15, 10:24

Hello,

I do not agree because I think acid rain will fall on the land, as all the rains that come from the ocean.

And there are no humans who live on earth :?

All that oil consumption is reflected in the embodied energy of materials we purchase, by paying more oil this Chinese objects would be less advantageous to the economy ...

http://www.planetoscope.com/co2/680-emi ... ndial.html

A+
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by chatelot16 » 25/07/15, 10:34

when you buy a Chinese computer, what is the consomation cargo that crosses the world, and what is the consomation the truck that finished the livaraison in France?

I see coming the paradox that thanks to the huge amount cargo transported by the amount of fuel delivered by consomé object is similar to traversser the world, to end truck delivery: this is what explains the ease International trade
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by chatelot16 » 25/07/15, 10:44

I can not seem to find statistics on the distribution of oil between different means of transport, but I found this: http://www.manicore.com/documentation/p ... graph4.jpg

can suposer that heavy fuel oil is above consomé by boats, and it is low before the other to consumption: the diesel consumption measurements is greater confirming that the boat unless the truck poluent

we also note the amount of jet fuel (kerosene) low enough too, not increasing despite the increasing number of passengers, I think thanks to advances in modern aircraft

I regrete much the quantity of fuel for heating, which is a waste and a big source of polution in the city! dispercé and not in the vastness of the ocean
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by Leo Maximus » 25/07/15, 12:24

chatelot16 wrote:there is no possible filtering easily against the suffering

suffers from the fact the fuel of the sulfuric acid in the exhaust making it impossible filtering other polution

Filtering is possible as the oil has a low sulfur content.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra-low-sulfur_diesel (In English, sorry)

The boats particulate filter that also exists but it is not yet compulsory. There is little that the Japanese who use it.
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by moinsdewatt » 25/07/15, 13:16

There is a technique of filtarge SO2 for boat smoked Heavy oil is the use of scrubber can be translated as' 'scrubber'.

Scrubber

Description
Sea water scrubbing is an example of after-treatment of exhaust gas and uses sea water to wash SO2 out of the exhaust gases. No additives are needed, Because The alkaline HCO3 and SO4 of the sea water neutralizes the sulfur oxides in the scrubber. This chemical reaction results in sulphates. The sulphate Containing waste water is re-circulated back into the sea. There is Some concern about the potential impacts of marine contaminated sea water Discharged from scrubber systems, aim the sea already: has a naturally high concentration of sulphates and The Therefore is seen as a safe sulfur tank. Based on this knowledge, the high sulphate concentration of the water probably Discharged: has a negligible effect on the concentration of the sea. Sea water scrubber requirements are laid down in MEPC Resolution 184 (59). Based on thesis règlements, IMO HAS Given approval to this technology. The use of low sulfur fuel can be Substituted by the setup and use of sea water scrubbers.

The effectiveness of sea water scrubbers can be limited if sea water alkalinity is too low, for example in the northern portion of the Baltic Sea and Alaska. The fresh water scrubber is a Good alternative if high efficiency cleaning is needed, or as a means clustering of seawater alkalinity Avoiding issues. In Such scrubbers, a caustic soda (NaOH) solution is used for the Neutralising sulfur.

http://cleantech.cnss.no/air-pollutant- ... /scrubber/

Increasingly Ferry s' to equip, a high price for the operating companies. 15 million € by ferry below.

Brittany Ferries Normandie equipped with scrubbers to Santander

Under the project management of STX France, responsible for the integration of scrubbers on the Brittany Ferries fleet, the first ship of the Breton company equipped with this smoke washing system is being transformed in Santander. The work is conducted by Astander for a ship's return to service in early January. Mid-January, it was the turn of the Cap Finistère go through the Spanish site, where a team of STX France oversees the implementation of scrubbers. For the rest of the fleet, tenders are underway to determine which projects or realize the changes, requiring a technical stop of two months to two and a half months by ship. While the work must begin mid-March on the Barfleur, the company plans to equip Brittany, Mont St Michel and the Pont Aven from the 2015 fall.

An investment of 90 million

The introduction of smoke washing systems will result in a visual change of vessels, whose chimneys will be larger. It will enable the company to comply with the entry into force, the 1er January 2015, the new regulations on sulfur emissions from ships operating in the English Channel, North Sea and Baltic. The integration of scrubbers on six ships represents an investment of € 90 million for Brittany Ferries, who chose this solution following the adjournment of its energy conversion project based on the use of LNG propulsion. In addition to the construction of the ferry Pegasis, fell into the water, it had to be placed on the newer ships (Brittany, Mont St Michel and Pont Aven), only Normandy, Barfleur and Cape Finisterre before initially be equipped with scrubbers.

ADEME aid and local authorities



To support the arming of Roscoff, the State, via ADEME, comes to grant aid to 3.6 million euros (1.2 million grant, the remainder consisting of repayable advances) as part of a call for projects on clean ferries. This incentive funding will be used to finance part of the Normandy works. Brittany Ferries can not however claim a measure similar to the following ships, which will be equipped with scrubbers after the entry into force of the new regulation. The company nevertheless hopes to benefit thereafter, the new call for proposals on clean ferries, which will feature 80 million and normally launched around November 2015. Meanwhile, aid 4 million has been allocated by the Brittany region for the mixed company owner from Brittany ferries operated by the company. And it should soon be well in Normandy for SEM with the "Norman" ships. Although it is only repayable advances such aid are presented as very important compared to banks to raise loans.


http://www.meretmarine.com/fr/content/b ... -santander that contains photos.
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by Flytox » 25/07/15, 21:00

moinsdewatt wrote:There is a technique of filtarge SO2 for boat smoked Heavy oil is the use of scrubber can be translated as' 'scrubber'.

Scrubber

Description
Sea water scrubbing is an example of after-treatment of exhaust gas and uses sea water to wash SO2 out of the exhaust gases. No additives are needed, Because The alkaline HCO3 and SO4 of the sea water neutralizes the sulfur oxides in the scrubber. This chemical reaction results in sulphates. The sulphate Containing waste water is re-circulated back into the sea. There is Some concern about the potential impacts of marine contaminated sea water Discharged from scrubber systems, aim the sea already: has a naturally high concentration of sulphates and The Therefore is seen as a safe sulfur tank. Based on this knowledge, the high sulphate concentration of the water probably Discharged: has a negligible effect on the concentration of the sea. Sea water scrubber requirements are laid down in MEPC Resolution 184 (59). Based on thesis règlements, IMO HAS Given approval to this technology. The use of low sulfur fuel can be Substituted by the setup and use of sea water scrubbers.

The effectiveness of sea water scrubbers can be limited if sea water alkalinity is too low, for example in the northern portion of the Baltic Sea and Alaska. The fresh water scrubber is a Good alternative if high efficiency cleaning is needed, or as a means clustering of seawater alkalinity Avoiding issues. In Such scrubbers, a caustic soda (NaOH) solution is used for the Neutralising sulfur.

http://cleantech.cnss.no/air-pollutant- ... /scrubber/


Like what water injection in the exhaust can limit pollution in the air .... SO2 finally the receptacle of sulfur pollutants is the sea .... it is supposedly less problem ....

Image

Even inject water (fresh this time), it would also put into the engine (BMW type system) to address the NOx and PM. At the same time the already excellent conso on these big boats engines could still improve. Soon more respectful engines port cities? : Cry: :P
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by moinsdewatt » 28/07/15, 18:44

A radical solution to the elimination of SO2 is the passage to the fuel gas.
For boats too.

Costa Cruises joined Aida Cruises liners for gas

the 28 / 07 / 2015 lemarin.fr

Natural gas as an alternative marine fuel eliminating nearly all air pollutants to start operations in the Mediterranean. The US group Carnival said the two ships ordered in June the Finnish Turku shipyard Meyer are for its Italian subsidiary Costa Cruises. They will be powered entirely by LNG as the other two ships ordered from Meyer in Germany and for the German subsidiary Aida Cruises.


http://www.lemarin.fr/secteurs-activite ... -paquebots
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by Christophe » 28/07/15, 18:52

Ah yes as when Costa's ships will fail it will simplify dismantling : Mrgreen: Booom!

ps: sorry ... I go ...
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