Regarding the "water car" ...

Tips, advice and tips to lower your consumption, processes or inventions as unconventional engines: the Stirling engine, for example. Patents improving combustion: water injection plasma treatment, ionization of the fuel or oxidizer.
Christophe
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by Christophe » 08/03/04, 18:57

Here is an email I just received. I don't know the exact source, probably one forum.

This is a subject that smells of urban legend! As an example, here is this:


Colleagues of Mr. Lucien Vuffray, engineer now retired, draw his attention to an article published in France concerning the project of Mr. Hector-Pierre Vaes, to put on the market a system allowing a car to consume essentially only water and using electrodes made of porous metal membranes sold in Japan. Thanks to the prestige of the company where he worked, Mr Vuffray will come into contact with Mr Vaes. He crossed several borders with his car and, as the article above indicates, parked in the courtyard of the Tribune de Genève where Mr. Vuffray, the journalist from the Tribune and other members of the writing. The following year, Mr. Vaes will have the bailiff see the assembly on his Chevrolet modified to run on LPG of an electrolytic cell producing hydrogen and oxygen, one injected into the intake, the other into the air intake. The bailiff affixed seals to the 60 liter LPG tank, the car drove for 56 days traveling 1855 km on the roads of France and Belgium, then the bailiff removed the seals and found that the tank still contained LPG. In the words of Mr Vuffray, LPG was mainly used at start-up and the exhaust was "almost odorless, although with an acrid and sweet aftertaste reminiscent of methylated spirits from the toys of his childhood" . Note the ridiculous capacity of the water tank, 4 liters, while from a purely electrochemical point of view, more than fifty liters of water would be consumed per hour. According to the article published in a newspaper in the French Jura region, the consumption of the Chevrolet by Mr Vaes before conversion would have been 20 liters per 100Km (15mpg), and one liter of water and three of LPG then. Note also the equally ridiculous consumption of the electrodes in direct current, although the supply of the "maser" was not taken into account and can amount to a few hundred Watts.

[See the attached file]



And here is the diagram drawn by Mr Vuffray of the electrolysis cell from the oral description of Mr Vaes who, on receiving a copy, will later qualify it by mail as "exact, except for the windings located below." Mr Vaes quipped that his correspondent would only have to "buy a bulletproof vest and a safe at UBS to reap the benefits." According to Mr Vuffray, whom I would like to thank for these details, an orange glow emanated from the cylindrical walls of the plastic tank, as well as from the supply of the "maser" when the machine was operating.

[See the attached file]

So there is a strange urban legend that this one, who came from Belgium to park in the courtyard of the Tribune de Genève, then crossed several borders of French-speaking countries in an original tour of France; which we could open the hood, the electrolysis cell and sniff the exhaust! Mr Vaes, a salesman, already mentioned in 1980 that the thing displeased the French government very much for fiscal reasons. In private, he confessed that this marketing had been "strongly discouraged by some disturbing visitors". He had hoped that Mitterrand's France would adopt a policy more favorable to his project. But old and in poor health, he died a few months later. In the following article, I will try to discover its secret.





The steam car
If we consider the laws of thermodynamics superficially, the only interesting possibility would be the injection of a small amount of water, of the order of 10%, in order to improve the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. Water can also be used in the form of vapor or aerosol in the air intake or an emulsion with fuel, which poses a stability problem. The yield improvement would be around 10%. But Rudolf Gunnermann supplied his engines with an emulsion containing up to 50% water with a 27% improvement in efficiency. His system required a nickel crown around the candles, which was therefore subject to significant electrical polarization, which also had the effect of "cracking", that is to say breaking and hydrogenating heavy hydrocarbons. presence of steam. This is the principle of "super-carburetors" which increase the octane rate of volatilized fuel in the presence of water vapor and a catalyst, which substantially increase the efficiency of the engines by replacing the progressive combustion, very inefficient and partial mixing of various hydrocarbons with different vaporization points, by the detonation of light and volatile hydrocarbons. The actual efficiency of combustion engines, sometimes close to 7%, would be multiplied beyond 30%. From this point of view, the mixture of LPG and hydrogen has a similar result.

The first “super-carburetor” was that of Charles N. Pogue, patented in 1930 and successfully tested by Ford, but which the oil companies hastened to make inoperative by adding lead to petrol the following year. so as to poison the catalyst. Generations of city dwellers have been poisoned by this heavy metal for the benefit of tax administrations and oil tankers. In his memoirs, General Rommel attributed the Allied victory in Africa to a top secret American steam carburetor. Rommel's plan was to retreat into the desert by visiting his secret fuel depots in turn. When the Americans were dry, he would attack. This was not the case and they caught up with him on his third stopover. John Pogue, Charles' brother publicly revealed that he helped install the famous carburetor in the Jeeps and armored vehicles that were used. Numerous testimonies from mechanics confirm this. Unlike the average citizen, the military would have no trouble getting unleaded fuel. However, chemical detonation alone is not enough to explain the extreme reductions in fuel consumption of certain “super-fuel” or hydrogen cars, or the fact that their engines remain cold.







Producing hydrogen
Many hydrogen systems, such as the one mentioned above, use electrolysis. According to Faraday's law, the quantity of dissociated molecules per unit of time is proportional, above a threshold voltage which is 1.47V for water, with only current. Between 1.23 and 1.47V, random thermal energy would also contribute to dissociation, with an over-unit factor reaching 19% according to some authors. We are far from the yields of the order of several tens that would be necessary for the functioning of the Japanese system or of the cell of Stanley Meyer, who died mysteriously. Is it possible to use resonance to break the link of the water molecule with less than a tenth of the energy required, as Stanley Meyer or the Japanese inventor claimed? The answer based on the laws of chemistry and thermodynamics is unambiguous: at most, the performance will be optimal at resonance, but generally less than unity. In addition, the quantities of hydrogen produced remain paltry. Since such fixtures have obviously worked with inexplicable results, the conclusion is obvious that they used another source of energy. Which?

The most effective mechanism for breaking the bonds of the water molecule was discovered in 1910 by Mrs. Marie Curie: radiolysis. She explains that sealed ampoules containing a solution of radium salts eventually exploded, only under the pressure of the dissociated water. The process has been used by many inventors since that time and recently rediscovered and described by Bruce André Perrault. During radioactive decay in water, 95% of the ionizing energy is directly converted into oxygen and hydrogen molecules, which do not recombine. Note that this applies to any high energy ionizing radiation: alpha, beta or gamma emanating from a nuclear reaction, natural or stimulated radioactivity, fusion reactions. Alpha radiation, closely followed by beta is ideal because their chemical cross-section very clearly dominates its nuclear equivalent. These two radiations dominate in radioactivity.





Joseph Papp's radiolysis engine
Papp used noble gases as a closed circuit thermodynamic buffer. The intake chamber contains an electromagnetic exciter acting on a Uranium or Thorium oxide by accelerating its natural disintegration. Water is injected into it, undergoes radiolysis and the mixture of oxygen, hydrogen and rare gases is then directed to a conventional combustion engine. The process can include several stages before injection in order to optimize the stimulated decay of radon. The exhaust contains the same rare gases, water vapor and is recycled. Insofar as the stimulated radioactivity completely inactivates the nuclear fuel and converts it into helium and lead, for a traditional engine providing 50KW mechanical, the consumption will therefore be 250KW thermal. Assuming that all the energy comes from the conversion of Uranium to Lead, one hour of operation will convert 47mg, and act on a flow of 14g of water per second. Such a car, used two hours a day will therefore, on this assumption, convert 35 grams of Uranium to Lead each year. The problem is to achieve the maximum of this conversion in the stages preceding the combustion so as to minimize the fouling of the engine, while avoiding the premature explosion of the mixture, which happened with one of the prototypes of Papp which exploded in seriously injuring three technicians. Another problem is that the radioactivity of Uranium, although it is accelerated by many orders of magnitude, is far from flash decay, except in the combustion chamber, which involves Brown's gas, resulting in a increased levels of radium and other isotopes with a shorter half-life. particularly in the intake chamber, which makes recycling somewhat difficult. From this point of view, thorium is preferable although it does not completely resolve the issue. In the rest of this article, we will see that the consumption of Thorium and the contamination of the engine by its daughters, radioactive or not, have been overestimated, it having another source of energy, essential for its functioning and its virtues " self-cleaning ”, which also makes it possible to replace pure thorium with thoriated tungsten or other substances. In addition, it will appear that its thermodynamic efficiency is close to unity, which explains why it remained cold, dividing its consumption by five relative to the previous description. Keep in mind that such a car would consume 3 tonnes of gasoline, reject 8.3 tonnes of CO2 by pumping 8.8 tonnes of our precious oxygen each year! For a taxi, these figures are to be multiplied by four or five, and still by a few million in large cities, where the oxygen levels are so low that we dare not publish them.



Can we do better?
On the one hand, the quantity of Thorium present can be minimized, in order to make the recycling of the components less delicate. But this requires its flash decay. Let us therefore call on an additional energy capable of reducing the consumption of Thorium while improving its disintegration: fusion. Its so-called cold version gave rise to much controversy when it was announced somewhat prematurely by Pons and Fleischmann in 1989, mainly because the conditions of its reproducibility were poorly understood. But immense progress, both experimental and theoretical, has been made by many researchers since then, alas essentially ignored by the academic world.



The conditions for cold fusion
Several mechanisms seem to play an important role:

- Fusion catalyzed by aggregates of one to several electrons, which make it possible to overcome the Coulomb barrier between two nuclei in tight orbits according to the standard rules of quantum mechanics. (A compact ring of n electrons linked by their anomalous magnetic moment following each other at a distance of a few fermi allows the fusion of two nuclei of atomic number <n orbiting on either side. The exotic molecule can have a charge ranging atomic number to zero, or even to a negative value.) Such aggregates appear spontaneously on irregularities or dendrites of pulsed cathodes, during attack by acids of metal grains, in metal hydrides or crystalline metals subjected to intense mechanical stresses, in arcs or micro-arcs, as well as in electric discharges. As for the hydrex molecule, composed of two hydrogen nuclei on either side of an electron, it is formed when a metal is attacked by an acid involving two opposite hydrogens, in the presence of magnetization perpendicular to the surface which may come from the metal, for example from monodomain grains of iron or nickel, during electrolysis on a ferromagnetic cathode below its Curie temperature. It could be done under similar conditions during the reduction of water on a weakly polarized ferromagnetic hot anode, as in the GEET or the Gardner Watts cell. Hydrex is ideally suited for fast inertial fusion, and for cold or warm fusion (~ 104 ° K). On the other hand, the high density of the radiation from the hot tokamak fusion or gaseous hearth and the long periods of confinement would break the links, putting an end to the process.

- The high electron density in the vicinity of heavy nuclei, such as Tungsten or Thorium, reduces the thermal energy of the fusion of two protons or deuterons by more than four orders of magnitude, to less than a kilovolt, a value that could be obtained in landfills or under the effect of acoustic shock waves. Because of their radius of 38.4 and 76.8 Fermi, the exotic molecules of hydrex and deutex see their likelihood of mutual fusion, already important, further increasing in this environment. In turn, this fusion stimulates the radioactive decay of unstable heavy elements.

- The realization of micro-singularities in cavitation, in which nuclei in tight orbits around electronic aggregates, and even warm plasmas of hydrogen isotopes will merge more quickly by successive shock waves, during the phase implosive, in the presence of heavier elements.

- According to some researchers, collective electronic phenomena in metals can contribute, probably by catalyzing the inter-atomic formation of the electronic aggregates mentioned. Likewise, coherent collective nuclear states of deuterons or protons in metallic hydrides can favor the formation of orbital nuclear systems of the deutex type.

In the abnormal release of heat by electrolysis, it is found that a magnetic field perpendicular to the surface, acoustic or electromagnetic waves in the form of HF or laser radiation improve the efficiency. The solar radiation would have the same effect, perhaps because it contains the quadrupole radiation of de-excitation of the hydrex. As well as the use of electrodes of uranium, thorium or thoriated tungsten, the decay of which can be stimulated, which suggests a fusion-fission synergy, radiolysis stimulating fusion by sonoluminescent cavitation and the latter stimulating induced radioactivity. .

And there are the catalyst materials: Nickel cathodes for the formation of hydrex, Titanium or Palladium for deutex, in combination with certain gases or electrolytes.

The stimulation of cold fusion by acoustic resonance and by laser, today confirmed by the community of researchers in cold fusion, was initially discovered by Stanley Meyer in the 1980s and described in his patents. Likewise for the optimization of cavitation at low pressure, which is obtained by the suction effect of the engine in the electrolytic cells connected to the intake. As for the role of radiolysis in an acoustic resonance cell, mention should be made of Stephen Horvath and his 1976 patent.


Stanley Meyer's cell
These are very close parallel electrodes (~ 3mm) made of stainless steel separated by almost pure water, excited by a resonant circuit rectified so as to periodically raise the voltage to a few kilovolts in the presence of laser radiation obtained by diodes. Several such cells can be connected in series vertically, so as to completely disintegrate the radioactive catalyst, if there is one, and to de-excite and merge the nuclei in close orbit of the hydrex type which are produced. The frequencies of the pulse trains and the pulses themselves are a few tens of KHz and chosen to correspond to the acoustic frequencies of the system, which decrease when the density of the bubbles, which depends on the acoustic intensity, increases. . The rhythmic production of bubbles on the electrodes takes place in the acoustic bellies, which alone must be excited in order to create a resonant sonoluminescence. The cathode can be prepared so as to have nickel dendrites on the surface. In this way, aggregates of one or more electrons form the center of orbital systems with two nuclei, some of which will de-excite and merge on the spot, contributing to the dissociation of water by radiolysis. Others will have a long enough lifespan to do so only in the next cell or the combustion chamber by providing additional energy. It would therefore be wrong to judge the efficiency of such a cell only on the amount of dissociated water.

The strong release of various radiation, the resonant implosion of cavitation, which generates plasmas of ten thousands of degrees and probably smaller and much hotter internal singularities linked to shock waves, all these factors are ideal. to disintegrate Thorium on the cathode.

If all the energy of Meyer's cells came from the only radiolysis by flash disintegration of Thorium, the water should contain 1 mg / liter, and the consumption for mechanical 50KW would be more than 50 liters of water per hour. However, it seems that the water consumption reported by the users of such devices is much less than the equivalent volume of gasoline that would have been necessary, of about 5 liters per hour. According to some experimenters working with stainless steel anodes, there exist electrochemical reactions involving the hydroxyl ion OH- and the components of the air, capable of generating a gas which is combustible there (N (OH) 2 or rather NH2- OH-HNO3, which would be explosive like ammonium hydroxide and nitrite) added to hydrogen, which would somewhat increase the gas volume produced and would require the injection of small amounts of air in cells under low pressure. The reaction would be improved with a magnetic field on the anode. All of this remains to be verified and clarified. Bruce Perrault proposed converting oxygen from the air by radiative ionization to combustible ozone. But neither Meyer's cell nor that which Mr. Vaes wanted to market seems, at first glance, to have had an air intake. In addition, water consumption would remain significant. Another conventional process having an excellent yield, with an over-unit factor of 29, the oxidation of a consumable anode in mild steel and the reduction of water below the traditional threshold voltage, the cathode being made of nickel-plated steel, with production of hydrogen only, as well as of hydrex, on the cathode and the anode. A similar system invented by François Cornish converts aluminum wire into oxide under high voltage. But this would still belong to a different process, since neither the Japanese system nor that of Stanley Meyer used consumable anodes.

Rigorous experiments show that considerable additional energy can be released downstream, in the cylinders, by the de-excitation and fusion into deuterium of exotic metastable molecules of hydrex according to the mechanism proposed by Maric, Dragic, Vigier et al. Their de-excitation and fusion in the electrolysis cell itself substantially reduces the amount of electricity or Thorium required to maintain the process and the same mechanism in the combustion chamber explains the minimal volumes of water consumed in the system presented in the introduction, as in others, with anode or metallic surface, consumable or not. If all the energy released in the cylinders came from the mutual fusion of the components of the hydrex, which gives off 1.46MeV, 25mg or 27 centilitres of hydrogen would be converted into deuterium every hour in our 50KW mechanical car. This energy would be further multiplied if one of the protons orbiting two or three electrons of a hydrex-type system fused with other heavier nuclei: lithium, boron or carbon, or if such a system, formed a di-neutron which would then merge with these heavier elements. Low energy transmutations therefore play a major role in the functioning of the legendary water car.

Fusion-fission synergy plays a crucial role in the electromagnetic stimulation of radioactivity in the presence of liquid water or vapor by the formation, de-excitation and fusion of hydrex, as shown by Jacques Dufour et al. A significant part of the energy released in the Papp engine therefore comes from the fusion in the upstream exciter, of hydrex, without which it would probably not work, and which will necessarily contribute to the energy balance in the combustion chamber downstream, as well as the flash neutralization, in this one of Radon. From which we deduce that the water flow and the consumption of Uranium or Thorium had been overestimated as well as the contamination by Radon and its radioactive daughters of the engine, the combustion of the hydrex having a powerful effect neutralizer, which manifests in Brown's gas. But the Meyer-type cell is obviously much cleaner, since it derives most, if not all of its energy, from fusion, radiolysis by stimulated radioactivity playing only a secondary, perhaps optional, catalytic role. the low volumes of water consumed.

This explains the mystery of the Japanese system:

1 / Sonofusion is induced in ferromagnetic electrodes polarized in agglomerated fibers or in Nickel fabric by the micro-discharges which the eddy currents create there, induced by the windings connected to the "maser", probably a magnetron or an HF generator. , pulsed at acoustic resonance. Since the eddy currents carry out most of the production of hydrex and its fusion by micro-discharges and cavitation, the source of the orange luminosity observed, we deduce that, if it includes a magnetron or a VHF generator, it is connected to windings of a single turn around an annular ferrite magnet, for the continuous polarization of the electrodes, with a Gunn diode to create an asymmetrical sawtooth signal and that, if it is '' a circuit of ten KHz, which allows a toroidal court in magnetostrictive ferrite and the pulsed magnetization of the electrodes, the pulses are as square as possible, in order to have a maximum of voltage induced at a fundamental harmonic acoustic. The membranes being spaced 4cm apart and located in the bellies, the acoustic frequency of the pulsations would be less than 17.875KHz.

2 / The alternative to eddy currents at the surface is high-voltage capacitive discharge in pulsed microwaves, or at acoustic frequencies only, between the nickel membranes and the adjacent metallic surface of the magnets, as well as between the magnets- ring electrodes. In this case, the connection of the electrodes to the battery should include a filter or a stop coil, except if an HF electrode was added (a grid between the magnets), or removed (a single magnet). The surfaces of all facing electrodes should be considered as acoustic bellies.

It is possible that Thorium dioxide was incorporated into the electrodes, as well as black or Platinum foam, such electrodes being available in the chemical industry.


En conclusion
The water engine is running. But if we ignore the origin of energy, only inhabitants of environments rich in hydrex, or regions producing Uranium or Thorium and whose water or steel products are contaminated have a chance d '' see certain versions of it working at optimal speed. Knowledge of the synergies involved makes it possible to reduce the use of these latter critical materials, which are moreover neutralized by the process, to a minute level, to incorporate them into the electrodes, or even to substitute their pure salts or oxides with those of alloys with Tungsten or other substances, mainly consumed and therefore rendered harmless. Fusion at low energies is far from being only “a laboratory curiosity without much practical interest”, since its applications already existed long before Pons and Fleischmann announced their work. (The first water car worked, it seems, in the USA in 1929, and an electrolysis engine was described in September 1946 in a fiction of Amazing Stories) Financial interests explain why the subject of low energy nuclear reactions remained taboo in the academic world of the main countries with oil interests, except ... in Japan, which has no major oil resources or interests. The same goes for China and India, which it is hard to imagine that the two billion inhabitants will each have access to a private car, each consuming more than eight tonnes of oxygen and emitting the same amount of carbon dioxide. every year. In addition, the possibility of extracting most of the energy from the fusion of exotic molecules opens up important perspectives in the aeronautical field of Meyer type systems that are cleaner, light and compact than those with stimulated radioactivity ... this by the merger.

Given its minimal consumption of water, the legendary electrically polarized cell of Joe X is, on its large metallic surfaces, essentially a generator of hydrex. But the water must be enriched beforehand with this material which accumulates there, hence a break-in period with generally the need to use an auxiliary pre-treatment generator in a fixed position. The weak excitation in the cylinders by the combustion of hydrogen and the absence of Meyer-type pre-excitation stages would explain its supposed capricious functioning. As for the freshness of the engine, it is due to the very high thermodynamic efficiency of micro-detonations, in reality extremely “hot, steep and dry” because dominated by the energetic and ionizing radiation of the de-excitation-fusion that their dissociation abruptly interrupts, but localized and damped by the air buffer (or an inert gas in the Papp engine). Although the power is almost converted into mechanical expansion and not into heat, the phenomenon nevertheless poses combustion delay problems that Meyer had solved thanks to its pre-exciters. (*)

To summarize: the electrolytic cells which dissociate an abnormal quantity of water in relation to the electric power supplied are necessarily based on in situ radiolysis, by accelerated fission of elements such as Thorium in synergy with hydrex and its reactions, while that those which manage to run an engine with minimal quantities of water, like the cell of Joe X, are essentially generators of hydrex. Both the latter and the stimulated fission which it induces in unstable isotopes, by the very high temperature of the micro-explosions which result in a buffer medium, are capable, as fuels, of substantially raising the thermodynamic efficiency of the motors. *)

The problems: the adaptation of cars controlled by sensors and microprocessors, the variability of the resonance in the Meyer type cells with liquid water and, in countries with cold winters, the freezing of water, which also affects the reactors with steam injection, as well as aeronautics at altitude and the solution of which would be the use of a compatible antifreeze, or else the production of hydrocarbons, alcohols or additives based on or generating hydrex, and their synthesis in situ insofar as they are metastable.

The surface of the combustion chamber and particularly the crown around the candles, seat of a significant electric polarization, will benefit from being in Nickel.

Last question: how to compensate for the tax loss linked to gasoline revenues? As automobiles are converted, the sticker and other automobile taxes on conventional fuels will certainly have to increase, supplemented by an advance tax on the reprocessing of used electrodes, as is already done with computer equipment. And ultra-pure water containing traces of Thorium and some additives, necessary for certain systems, is an industrial product also liable to be taxed, as are certain additives that generate hydrex. On the other hand, there will be savings on the sickness funds linked to the depollution of cities, on the trade balance of the states by the increased productivity of their economy, this type of system adapting to the functioning of turbines for the generation of electricity. , air, rail and sea transport. Many industrial sectors such as metallurgy will see their costs fall and a dynamic equipment activity will be generated, a source of tax revenue. Oil companies will focus more on petrochemicals and alternative energy systems and will experience some restructuring and mergers. As for the oil-producing states, this will encourage them to develop their petrochemicals, which have a higher added value than the gross product, to increase their prices, to decrease their production and to ensure a prospect of development in the longer term, since at current consumption rates, petroleum resources will be completely exhausted within a few decades. The production of cheap electricity will also allow them to desalinate seawater, green their deserts and develop their agriculture. No one will talk about water or oil wars, sources of political uncertainty and therefore stagnation, or even economic recession. As for overcrowding, it is now amply demonstrated that it is a phenomenon linked to illiteracy, and that as societies develop, their birth rate decreases. In the more developed regions, there is more fear of depopulation.

Note that a moderate industrial use of Uranium, Thorium in combination with heavy elements like Tungsten, in synergy with the fusion of hydrex or deutex, is economical, ecological and sustainable, due to the complete consumption initial natural materials, the preponderance of fusion energy, high thermodynamic efficiency, the absence of radioactive waste and costly enrichment and reprocessing cycles. The traditional light-water nuclear industries split approximately 1.5% of natural uranium (including the subsequent use of plutonium produced after multiple reprocessing) and produce depleted uranium, generally dispersed in toxic munitions in poor countries, lethal radioactive fission and plutonium waste, which can be used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Ideally, Uranium should be consumed and neutralized in catalytic doses in clean closed cycles, rather than inhaled by soldiers or civilians in massive doses (the impact of a 1,6 kg depleted Uranium shell, often containing traces of Plutonium, vaporizes half of it, and its firing a significant fraction). Since less than 2% of the uranium is used by the fission of power stations, and since this tiny portion essentially produces long-lived waste, not to mention the risk of accidents, this is the waste and the scandalous wasting of a precious natural resource: at the current rate of consumption, the world reserves of Uranium would be exhausted in fifty-five years. As for Thorium, no one today knows what to do with it, because of the irrational psychosis concerning any element, even a weakly radioactive one. On the other hand, the minimal synergetic use of these elements with the merger, when necessary, would allow world reserves to last more than ten millennia. Recall that the estimate of 40 years of oil reserves is rather optimistic: the USA reached the peak of their production in 1970, and Great Britain around 1986, with a substantial drop in both quantity and profitability since. Saudi Arabia and Kuwait will reach their peak within twenty years, and Iraq, if its production would restart now, in a dozen years, like the deposits of the CIS. The world production peak is expected around 2020, after which natural oil will become scarce and cost more and more. Just as much as the hydrocarbons that can be produced from coal, its use restricted to petrochemicals is preferable from an ecological point of view.



Some references:

On the worrying drop in oxygen levels in recent decades, particularly in large cities: http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0009014 . This article by RM Santilli criticizes the purely chemical use of hydrogen in engines or fuel cells and proposes the use of Magnegas ™.

GW Hefferlin; Burn Water For Fuel, Amazing stories Magazine, Vol 20, no. # 6, Sept 1946. In this fiction, a high-voltage Tesla coil created an arc in a chamber containing water vapor and released combustible gases. Hefferlin's circular-wing aircraft engine would have run on water during the 1930s. During the war, Hefferlin said he returned to the USA from his fantastic journeys in underground worlds rescued from lost civilizations, notably in Tibet, but also in Africa, to escape the Nazis and prevent his invention from taking part in their war machine. We swim there in full fantasy Indiana Jones, Lobsang Rampa, Baird T. Spalding and Blavatsky, without forgetting the reptilian breeds again in fashion, Agartha and the New World Order. The ideas of hydrogen engine and planes with circular wings, the latter being tested by the USAF of this time, were they incorporated into the fantastic accounts of the author and joined to the schizophrenic delusions of Shaver in order to ridicule the testimonials from potential observers or overly talkative mechanics?

On radiolysis: http://www.nuenergy.org/radiolysis.htm
and Joseph Papp's patent from 1968 in pdf

Resonant electrolysis and radiolysis cell: US patent 4,107,008 by S. Horvath of 1976

Resonant electrolysis cell mentioning a catalyst: http://www.rexresearch.com/puharich/1puhar.htm

With air flow, cathode and stainless steel anode: http://home.pacific.net.au/~apophis/watersystem.html ; http://www.cyberspaceorbit.com/wnotezz.htm ; http://home.pacific.net.au/~apophis/howitsdone.html

Consumable Anode Systems: http://www.gardnerwatts.org.uk/hec.htm (Consumes a 1.2Volts mild steel anode in a citric acid bath); http://www.layo.com/ (François Cornish's car dating from the end of the 1970s: a 900Kg and 2l vehicle consumes 166g of Aluminum wire and 3.33litres of water per 100Km to produce 1litre of H2 / second, which shows that the energy source cannot be chemical: ideally, around 166g of water (18.4g of H2) would be chemically dissociated, an additional part by electrolysis and the rest of the 3.33l transformed into steam. the quantity of hydrogen mentioned could not even make the engine idle and stop for an hour. Running such a car for 100 km would consume the hydrogen of tens of liters of water). The car was tested by BMW. http://www.eagle-research.com/fuelsav/supersec.html

On electron aggregates: K. Shoulders; see http://www.rexresearch.com/ev/ev.htm and http://www.mypage.bluewin.ch/Bizarre/EVs.htm

On hot micro-fusion by cavitation: http://blake.montclair.edu/~kowalskil/cf/102...1hotfusion.html

And the following article on the bound states of two protons around an electron:

Dragic, Z. Maric, JPVigier: New quantum mechanical tight bound states and 'cold fusion' experiments; Phys Lett A. 265 (2000) pp163-7

High voltage cell and 2% thoriated tungsten cathode: http://jlnlabs.imars.com/cfr/index.htm

Meyer's: http://www.rexresearch.com/meyerhy/meyerhy.htm ,

by Joe X: http://energy21.freeservers.com/as101.htm ; http://www.nutech21.com

And the essential visit to http://www.lenr.org .

In particular, see the references to the publications by Jacques Dufour et al. on hydrex and deutex (all authors), as well as the summaries of ICCF10 http://www.lenr-canr.org/iccf10/iccf10.htm ; in particular the abstracts of ICCF10, those of Robert Bass (pp.10), Dennis Letts and Dennis Craven (p.10) on the contribution of low-energy laser radiation, on nuclear reactions in the presence of Uranium by J. Dash (p.16,17) and on downstream energy production by RA Oriani and JC Fischer (pp.70). As well as the article by Storms.

http://www.wasserauto.de German site with many diagrams and diagrams.

On “super-carburation”:

http://www.himacresearch.com

http://www.rexresearch.com/pogue/1pogue.htm

http://www.rexresearch.com/ogle/1ogle.htm


Examples of hydrogen cells being marketed

http://www.hydrogen-boost.com/tech-info.html

http://www.eagle-research.com

http://www.h2ofuel.com/sci3.html This is a membrane system.

http://www.autogas-india.com/fuelcellm.html . It speaks of a "fractal hydrosonic generator", it reveals that the quantity of gas produced is 1 liter / 4 minutes, which makes the doubling of the efficiency of certain automobile models totally inexplicable by chemistry alone.

http://www.amer-grp.com/ It insists on the fact that metal is not consumed there to produce hydrogen, and here too, the yields are inexplicable by chemistry alone, the cell consuming between 240 and 600Watts, but being able to substantially increase the efficiency of the car between 50KW and 120KW mechanical, that is to say five times more from a thermal or chemical point of view.

http://www.genesisworldenergy.org/technology.htm It mentions that the system resembles a fuel cell, which generally uses electrodes with porous membranes; it insists on the possibility that existed until now to operate such a system with two catalysts of restricted access (pure Uranium and Thorium and their oxides, in my opinion), the first of which poses known environmental risks, which a more benign catalyst would have been substituted; on what the membranes would contain the catalysts which are slowly consumed according to energy use and must be replaced after several years, and on what the quantities of water consumed would be ridiculous, of the order of a few ounces per day, that is to say a hundred grams, and recyclable as in the engine of Joseph Papp. Furthermore, this team does not intend to protect their method with patents, mainly because (but they are not saying it!) The patents are already in the public domain, and new ones may be further classified. top secret. Obviously, we are talking about the same thing!


(*) The efficiency of an engine is (TC - TF) / TC, where TC is the temperature in degrees Kelvin of combustion and TF that after expansion. Ultra hot and energetic micro-explosions with a strong detonating power in a buffer medium will have a yield close to one, and will convert almost all their energy into mechanical expansion. Paradoxically, such an engine will remain cold, which will multiply its performance, but will most likely seize it or cause it to explode. (back to text)
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Logan
I understand econologic
I understand econologic
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Registration: 25/03/03, 11:45




by Logan » 14/03/04, 14:55

I had already posted the site of this article by CP Kouropoulos here: https://www.econologie.com/forums/mysteres-d ... -t84.html

so I give it back:
http://www.ovni.ch/~kouros/voiture.htm

Incidentally it means that you (the members) do not check the links that are submitted to you.
What's the point of taking off, sniff
;-)
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Misterloxo
Éconologue good!
Éconologue good!
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Registration: 10/02/03, 15:28
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by Misterloxo » 15/03/04, 20:48

Indeed Logan,

you had already posted about this article B)

My fault.

It must also be said that (I think this is the case for many of us) we read an astronomical quantity of documents right to left, here and there that ultimately we assimilate only a few things.

: blink:: unsure:
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Learning disobedience is a long process. It takes a lifetime to reach perfection. "Maurice Rajsfus
To think is to say no. "Alain, philosopher

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