# Explanation of the Pantone engine: ionization and electrification of water vapor expansion

## This document is a complement to the theory ofionization of water vapor during doping with water system G or G +

Document in English showing that the water vapor which expands is electrically charged and this can lead to electric shocks, which can be dangerous.

Journal of Electrostatics, 23 (1989) 69-78
Elsevier Science Publishers BV Amsterdam

Effects of Electrostatic Charged Steam Jets. J. FINKE. AA Department, Technical University of Magdeburg, PSF 124, Magdeburg, 3010, GOR

Summary: The electrostatic charging of wet steam during an expansion process yields a charged jet That Interacts with the environment. The generation and distribution of the load volume density in the stationary state determined the electrical field strength in the vicinity of the jet. As a consequence of drop evaporation discharging drift current is generated. Resulting electrostatic ignition hazards and Safety measures are adequate in Examined
more detail in connection with the charged state of a jet.

Conclusion: The expansion of wet steam from holes results in an electrification of the escaping jet. The load is generated During partial disruption of the surface area of ​​water films (resulting and in negative particles) and water droplets (resulting and in positive particles) as the steam leaves the port. Little OCCURS During load flow pipeline. In the constant geometric requirements of the piping port and the load of the jet is only dependent on the steam pressure and the happy or temperature of the wet steam. The electrical field strength in the vicinity of the jet is computable by means clustering of the load volume density in the stationary state. The load density is Reduced along the jet axis by
evaporating droplets forming a drift current towards earth. A relation of the type p - (c + z) - ”with c, n = constants describes the decay of the charge density P along the jet axis. The ions produced form a drift current
discharging the jet. In practical cases therefor obtained the values ​​of the mean drift current densified are in the order of 10-lnA / cm 'at the jet boundary. Owing to the effect of the electric field and the drift current, ignition hazards and technological interference Arise in the enviroment.