EXCERPTS FROM CRISIS AND DISASTER SURVIVAL
SEA written in 1989 Gabriel Ferrone.
- TRANSPORTATION AND KINETIC
- INTEGRATE THE CITY IN THE ENVIRONMENT
- PRINCIPLES OF KINETIC URBAN
- THE PROPOSED SOLUTIONS
- SOME IDEAS INNOVATIVE
Transport and kinetic
Let us return to the circulation and the kinetics of transport, they involve more than a regulation but a communication project in the world because any calculation shows that the practice of developed countries implemented globally has a catastrophic effect:
imagine how 3 or 4 billion vehicles each requiring over to 15 150 square meters of roads and requiring to 5 10 square meters of parking!
Our education and advertising mean that the car responds to playful needs - even if it is not a toy - to impulses related to sexuality, the need for domination, matchmaking, etc. In short, many of the seven deadly sins. Its role "to transport us" is often an accessory reason for the purchase.
This leads to find that the car can not be in the state, a democratic purpose: it is physically inaccessible to three billion people at least; it is deadly for others; moreover social inequalities are reinforced by security conditions, comfort, guarantees in case of accident completely different from one car to another, from one insurance to another.
It is not realistic to consider deleting but it obviously is to rethink a large project that takes into account the needs and obstacles to movement and communication, ie that isolates principles and requirements of urban movements.
Embed the city to its environment
The city exists only through its local, national and international. It focuses administration, commerce and distribution, part of industrial production, it manages information and is the hub of communications and transportation.
It is fed and feeds:
- An air network on fast aircraft and large capacity for intercontinental routes, or medium capacity for smaller trips;
- The maritime and river networks for large or heavy products;
- A complementary air - high speed rail for long journeys;
- Public transport many more or less synchronized for medium and short courses;
- Individual means of transport: air, sea, land;
These transports are essential to the city and its environment requiring continual exchanges, rapid and diversified.
Such transport is improved, but despite all efforts, they become increasingly deadly; Indeed, the exponential growth that all networks are congested, often saturated and for that reason, badly maintained so dangerous.
Most accidents are from:
In traffic congestion; poor maintenance of the road network; In poor signage; On unforeseen obstacles; From a poor vehicle maintenance; On an unplanned outage; the irresponsibility of the driver; Alcohol and drugs.
Regarding urban transportation automobile becomes increasingly embarrassing for all of us, cumbersome and unhealthy for the community. Asphyxia and pollution it causes reach all kingdoms, as even the mineral is attacked by rain and acid fog.
Among the palliatives, the application of the principles of "urban kinetics" developed by G. BEAU is therefore a necessity.
urban kinetic principle
- 1 People and goods are able to move freely day and night.
- 2 Vehicles must be able to stop the time needed for loading and unloading of people and goods they carry.
- 3 Vehicles that are not in use must be able to park without disturbing the population and traffic.
- 4 A priority traffic and unhindered must be provided to vehicle security personnel (ambulance, police, fire, etc.).
- A 5 unimpeded shall be ensured to public use vehicles.
- 6 transport systems must be complementary and synchronized.
- 7 transport systems must be safe for their users.
- 8 Regulation should be deferential to the user.
We see that at present this is wishful thinking because the sad reality shows us that many obstacles have to be overcome.
Corporatism has prevented the development of useful inventions: the electric car; SkyTrain; Arian train; micro collective parking; Parking at pre payment; the high-speed underground circulation (relative); building near park and ride stations, carts and taxi stations at the gates of cities; recovery of air spaces above and below SNCF and metro routes to make landscaped parks for parking and walking to all USERS can do mix.
On the other hand, the concession mode of car parks and outdoors by municipalities and the method of punishment applied to offenders are that municipalities have an interest to lead motorists to the fault to ransom.
This is unconstitutional, violates human rights, but nobody dares to say because it is pulled too easily camouflables profits by political parties.
Road signage is impressive, it is estimated that more than 15 million the number of vertical signs and road markings is also abundant: Sens prohibited, with the triangle pointing down, no parking, alone account 20% of the total.
Wild International competition forces each other to produce cars more and faster, more powerful but more deadly to those they collide.
The decluttering access roads would be facilitated by two unpopular measures: the development of work schedules and the staggering of holidays. It is obvious that despite government incentives the majority of French refused.
If the French are a little disciplined people, these measures are struggling to be implemented in its European neighbors, America is slowly being drawn by the speed and excesses, the Chinese dream only of Mercedes and Peugeot. Japan rolls Cadillac and Ferrari, although it reserves its terrible motorcycle export for not killing foolishly his youth as others do.
Thus we see that if a nation truly wants to tackle the problem of its transportation and its communication and prepare a coherent plan, she will face internationally powerful lobbies of oil, car manufacturers, road builders and parking lots, and at national level as well as syndicates to labor unions the corporations involved. Worse, the long-term beneficiaries of this plan users will likely be hostile to it because they refuse to part with their cars, dangerous, badly maintained, too fast or too slow, too polluting, which will then be banned and broken.
As far as urban kinetics is concerned, we have dealt with it to 1960 and it needed to be updated, as far as information is concerned it was treated in an "essay for a possible future of the press and audio-visual information. In 1972 which is still very current. These two tests brought nothing to the inventors who were looted following the good habits of French society.
But the characteristic of the inventors is to overlook the obstacles of this for not envisage an ideal future, also as if we were living in this ideal world where ideas are received with attention and respect by those who do not, we will consider some solutions that are obvious to the team of ecologists vanguard but still surprise you.
Long experience has shown that good ideas are always recovered, even if we forget, silenced or assassinate its inventors.
Gérard BEAU was nearly detained and would have stayed there without our support, it, however, allowed to steal his ideas and ours are widely used. With him we reported 35 conventional solutions and we had even proposed, it is no accident that today many major cities, including the city of Paris, use the three quarter. Here's what we can say about that in 1989 but almost everything was already said in 1960 and before. Leonardo da Vinci, always him, already provided to separate the traffic of pedestrians and the vehicles in the streets and make hearts of Venice, Florence and Genoa places without vehicle
In the steps we recall, it is clear that Beau, Ferone de la Selva and friends do not have invented everything, more important that efforts are made by the national and municipal services and that our observations, that desire objective, will have to emphasize this does not exclude that currently projects must be severely criticized because they increase the pressure on motorists without addressing the underlying problems.
Here is the list, updated in 1989, the proposed solutions:
Ps: the asterisk indicates the point yet neglected, * ongoing ** little to do better, to do everything ***
THE ROAD NETWORK:
1 - improving the overall signaling **
2 - night-time signaling and daylighting of underground passages at levels appropriate to avoid glare and "black hole" **
3 - delimitation of traffic queues *
4 - signaling of the main routes **
5 - modulation and synchronization of traffic lights **
6 - removing infrastructure barriers ***
7 - normalizing the width of the campaign in ways **
8 - removal of three-way roads for the benefit of four-lane **
9 - realization of crossings that do not cross the traffic, by overlapping routes **
10- realization of superimposed parallel tracks seismic on congested roads
11- enlargement bridges **
12- duplication of exit ramps and entrance underpasses.
13 - carrying axes in major trades in the basement in cities, with car parks, important points stations, administrative and commercial areas. **
14- successive positioning of exits and entries in this order so as not to cut the two circulations. **
1 - improved guidance on public transport *
2 - laying planes of the district, large-scale, in the common transit stations *
3 - optimizing public transport schedules **
4 - reduced expectations in the stations and connections **
5 - setting different bus service dimensions tailored to local variations and hourly traffic **
6 - Bus implementation Decker ***
7 - modernization and improvement of metropolitan lines *
8 - construction of new lines *
9 - extending current lines *
10- interconnection of SNCF and RER stations **
11- synchronization and optimization between SNCF, METROS, cars, buses, taxis and car parks for the public **
12 - laying treadmills and elevators, accessibility study for the disabled.
THE PRIVATE TRANSPORT
1- Development taxis and rental cars without driver for individuals and goods **
2- Development carts, driverless, self-service, pre payment ***
3- Creation of "clubs" for the exploitation of these carts, around stations and deterrence parking lots ***
4 - development of "well parks" from fifteen to thirty places to solve the parking of vehicles of the inhabitants of the agglomeration ***
5 - Development of underground collective farms, secure and humanized **
6 - Reservation and development of adequate areas, preferably in the basement for loading and unloading of goods **
7 - planning many cyclists and footpaths possibly being at a level different from the auto traffic lanes ***
8 - Garden design - terraces height suitable parking downtown, connected to underground services and surface in order to save weight drop - heavy, equipped with unloading means to small vehicles that can provide rapid local redistribution of loading **
9 - modular containers of developing rail / road **
10 - development of bus stations with car and truck parking to encourage the use of public transport: **
11- Sale of gasoline giving entitlement to "collective" kilometers **
12 - downward revision of train fares to encourage carriers to coordinate with the rail over long distances ***
13 - development process - with self multiplication of access stations, no purchase of a passenger ticket for putting on car ***
14 - management of companies working hours, businesses, administrations, schools **
THE SPECIAL VEHICLES
1- development towns of vehicles not exceeding a footprint of 3 square meters on the ground, easily guarantor, low emissions, not on highways; **
2- development of fast vehicles but very studied on the security plan for touring; **
3 - development of cars that do not use fossil fuels: electric batteries and solar, hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen, inertial engine, compressed gas **
4 - development control humidity and engine said water; ***
5 - improved electronic steering aid; *
6 - internal limiting the speed of vehicles; ***
7 - external speed limitation by electronic control; ***
8 - electronic traffic information and time; *
1- vehicle purchases linked to two conditions: availability of parking; possession of the appropriate license to the vehicle ***
2- Compulsory education of traffic to primary school; **
3- driving license beginner as a compulsory subject to 16 years in all school options ***
4 - implementation of a "progressive" license depending on the driver's sense of responsibility and ability **
5 - HGV at three levels: beginner, city, highway ***
7 - professional license at three levels: Delivery of VL and truck; P L. on delivery without tractor limber; Delivery on PL with trailer. **
6 - permit required agricultural machinery even in fields ***
7 - special permits for construction equipment drivers **
8- special permits for gear oversized and dangerous transport;
9- compulsory medical examination every 5 years or certificate of the doctor on sight, reflexes, self-control; ***
10- electronic tester by driving simulation in graduate rates for the progressions of the license; ***
11- mandatory Breathalyzer accident; *
12- medical information encoded on the driving license for emergency response in case of accidents; (The green card Social Security makes this office) *
13- Rewards for good drivers: **
14- Revision of the Penal Code on offenses **
The history and the decisions of men may face. In this anniversary year of the French revolution it is curious to note the difference between the anniversary of the revolution and the abolition of privileges and authoritarian decisions taken by councilors.
DOMINATI Jacques, Paris councilor in charge of traffic problems in the city, has just proposed a pretty incredible plan to make this city their free movement:
- He wants to remove 100 000 surface parking spaces. To do this he wants to suppress, even more vigorously, illegal parking 60 000 40 000 users and remove surface seats;
- Regarding the repression impounding vehicles, increased fines, greater severity in terms of traffic violations are clearly displayed on the walls of Paris. Police have: trucks - Crane who will each remove 700 vehicles per year; It will have undetectable radar against speeding and a unique computerized command and military model that will monitor all the Ile de France and Paris each district; its riders are equipped with transceivers melted in helmets that enhance their connections and allow them to respond more quickly.
Among the major drivel that the administration of the city of Paris has provided to its citizens we remember the famous shoes of Denver.
If a car was embarrassing and well she was immobilized on site by this tool; we judge the intelligence of the process since replaced discomfort a few minutes by a long embarrassment. Some wags handymen were, for retaliation, happy to fill their coffers of these medieval devices, to the fury of the authorities.
Other rejoicing: the impoundment, it gave rise to a range of rackets, unjustified kidnapping, vehicle theft, equipment theft in pounds under the single list would fill this book. In some cities like Toulon, reactions were violent and the administration has drafted its trucks - cranes in the port.
Paris does not yet seem to have to be a model for managing its traffic despite its electronics and some ideas more pleasant eg digging under the city a few lines of disgorging.
Given that the legal parking in Paris has 720 000 240 000 places including on public roads these projects are not balanced by the creation of compensatory legal parking They can not, for this, that meet the hostility of users.
We note that this authoritarian approach does not appeal to the innovative intelligence, common sense, the participation of associations and the public and will therefore meet the worst sociological barriers.
This society should stop gargling its "development" to refurbish its future project that it does not see in its inevitable catastrophic perspective if nothing changes.
Some innovative ideas
1- Silos well-***
In the courtyards with at least 14 9 meters in length and meters wide, G. Beau proposed to build wells 41 meters deep capable of accepting 20 or 30 automobiles. The idea was nice to have an elevator that automatically transports vehicles from one level to another, arranges automatically and returns the search demand. The parked cars and emit the equivalent areas on public roads.
2- Aerial pedestrian and bicycle lanes ***
For many cities, their structures would allow the setting up of tracks placed above congested roads where pedestrians and cyclists circulate a new commercially rewarding the underlying pavement receiving deliveries and more parking. Interested a million users at least for Paris.
3- Overhead AERIAL ***
RATP and SNCF have always opposed, rightly or wrongly, the monorail. This invention yet used elsewhere. It has advantages because it does not clutter the street and can be combined with the previous proposal. Mature technology does not seem at present despite recent tests in Germany. This is a motorized cabin, suspended its axis by two suspension rail on a raised rail beam. Its cost is less than the metro but it can have aesthetic disadvantages.
The cities 4- tiered **
Metro relatively deep basement, main roads and levels of handling above the ground floor or 1 ° basement, walkways and shops at parks - gardens on the ground floor or elevation. Apartments with large terraces back above each with its micro - garden - winter.
5- The solar electric cars ***
The electric car is progressing, a new concept emerged: its connection with the sun. In many cities the parking could receive solar panels charge batteries and quietly; the other night, off peak, Electricité de France has kilowatts that are, regardless of their origins, attractive to value. The electric car at low capacity, small footprint, low battery charge, rapid charge or standard instantaneous load, braking energy recovery. It is currently being studied everywhere but it would take the necessary capital to accelerate its maturity.
Ecology Energy Survival presented in a first exposure Marjolaine there over thirty years!
6 - The user clubs **
A fleet of electric carts used by club members, or by subscribers, would allow more freedom of movement. Rental cars or "shared time" cars are already available but their costs are not a deterrent to the purchase. There are also paths to explore.
7 - Hunting for ideas ***
The French are rich in ideas but the French company can not handle the inventors capital it possesses. In an article we wrote for the newspaper of the inventors we raised this problem.
There is a common mistake that confuses "The Inventor", the one who finds but who is as much artist as engineer of the "Researcher" whose mission is to explain the invention and to find laws and theoretical applications or the "Engineer" who makes an invention a marketable product and the "Professor" who must know the history of the invention, its theory, its applications and teach it to his students.
Solve problems as complex as those of traffic and communication of a big city without exploiting all the inventive and creative ability in it shows the intellectual poverty of those who think they can, alone or almost, give all solutions. It is more necessary than ever to achieve consensus between the various players in a needy process of collective reflection.
This is the contribution of Gabriel Ferrone Rendez - you Ecology organized by Serge LEPELTIER, Minister of Ecology and Sustainable Development with Vincent Bollore. "ELECTRIC CAR MYTH OR REALITY" the 09 11 2004.