EXCERPTS FROM CRISIS AND DISASTER SURVIVAL
SEA written in 1989 Gabriel Ferrone.
- TRANSPORT AND KINETIC
- INTEGRATE THE CITY INTO ITS ENVIRONMENT
- PRINCIPLES OF URBAN KINETICS
- PROPOSED SOLUTIONS
- SOME INNOVATIVE IDEAS
Transport and kinetic
Back to traffic and the kinetics of transport, they involve more than a regulation but a whole communication project on a global scale because the slightest calculation shows that the practice of developed countries transposed to a global scale has a catastrophic effect:
imagine how 3 or 4 billion vehicles each requiring over to 15 150 square meters of roads and requiring to 5 10 square meters of parking!
Our education and publicity make the car respond to playful needs - however it is not a toy -, to impulses linked to sexuality, to the need for domination, to matchism, etc. In short, several of the seven deadly sins. Its “transport us” role is often an accessory reason for the purchase.
This leads to the conclusion that the car cannot be, as it stands, a democratic object: it is materially inaccessible to at least three billion people; it is murderous for others; in addition, social inequalities are reinforced by the conditions of safety, comfort, guarantees in the event of an accident that are completely different from one car to another, from one insurance to another.
It is not realistic to envisage its suppression but it is obvious that it is to be rethought in a vast project which takes into account the needs and the obstacles to circulation and communication, that is to say which isolates the principles and necessities of urban movements.
Embed the city to its environment
The city only exists through its local, national and international environment. It concentrates administration, trade and distribution, part of industrial production, it manages information and is at the crossroads of communications and transport.
It is fed and feeds:
- An air network on fast and large capacity aircraft for intercontinental journeys, or of medium capacity for more modest journeys;
- Maritime and river networks for bulky or heavy products;
- Air-rail high speed complementarity for long journeys;
- numerous public transport more or less synchronized for medium and small routes;
- individual means of transport: air, sea, land;
These transports are essential to the city and its environment requiring continual exchanges, rapid and diversified.
Such transport is improved, but despite all efforts, they become increasingly deadly; Indeed, the exponential growth that all networks are congested, often saturated and for that reason, badly maintained so dangerous.
Most accidents are from:
Traffic saturation; poor maintenance of the road network; Poor signage; Unforeseen obstacles; Poor vehicle maintenance; An unexpected breakdown; driver irresponsibility; Alcoholism and drugs.
Regarding urban transport, the automobile is becoming more and more embarrassing for each of us, cumbersome and unhealthy for the community. The suffocation and the pollution it causes reach all the kingdoms, since even the mineral is attacked by acid rain and fog.
Among the palliatives, the application of the principles of “urban kinetics” developed by G. BEAU is therefore a necessity.
urban kinetic principle
- 1 People and goods must be able to move freely day and night.
- 2 Vehicles must be able to stop for the time necessary for the loading and unloading of people and the goods they transport.
- 3 Vehicles which are not in service must be able to park without obstructing the population and traffic.
- 4 Priority and unimpeded traffic must be ensured for the vehicles of the security agents (paramedics, police, firefighters, etc.).
- 5 Unimpeded traffic must be ensured for collective use vehicles.
- 6 The transport systems must be complementary and synchronized.
- 7 Transport systems must be harmless to their users.
- 8 The regulations must be deferential for the user.
We see that currently this represents wishful thinking because the sad reality shows us that many obstacles are to be removed.
Corporatism has prevented the development of useful inventions: the electric car; the Aerotrain; the air train; the collective micro parking lots; Pre-payment parking; high-speed (relative) underground traffic; the construction of deterrent car parks near stations, cart stations and taxis at the gates of cities; the recovery of airspace above and below SNCF and metropolitan tracks to make them landscaped parks for parking and walking so that all USERS can get on well together.
On the other hand, the mode of concession of the covered and open air car parks by the municipalities and the mode of sanction applied to the offenders make that the municipalities have a certain interest to lead the motorists to the fault in order to ransom them.
This is unconstitutional, violates human rights but nobody dares to say it because too many benefits are easily camouflaged by political parties.
Road signage is impressive, it is estimated that more than 15 million the number of vertical signs and road markings is also abundant: Sens prohibited, with the triangle pointing down, no parking, alone account 20% of the total.
Wild international competition forces everyone to produce cars that are faster and faster, more and more powerful, but more and more deadly for those they hit.
Clearing the access roads would be facilitated by two unpopular measures: the organization of working hours and the staggering of vacations. It is obvious that despite incentives from the public authorities, the majority of French people refuse to do so.
If the French form a poorly disciplined people, these same measures have great difficulty in being implemented among its European neighbors, America lets itself be won over by speed and its excesses, the Chinese dream only of Mercedes and Peugeot. Japan drives a Cadillac and a Ferrari, even if it reserves its terrible motorcycles for export so as not to stupidly kill its youth as others do.
Thus we see that if a nation really wants to tackle the problem of its transport and its communication and prepares a coherent plan, it will meet at the international level with the powerful lobbies of the oil tankers, the car manufacturers, the road builders and parking lots, and at the national level both to employers 'unions and workers' unions of the corporations involved. Worse, the long-term beneficiaries of this plan will probably be hostile to it because they will refuse to part with their cars, dangerous, poorly maintained, too fast or too slow, too polluting, which will then have to be banned and broken.
With regard to urban kinetics we dealt with it around 1960 and this needed to be updated, with regard to the information it was treated in an "essay for a possible future of the press and audiovisual information », In 1972 which is still very current. These two tests yielded nothing for the inventors who were looted according to the good habits of French society.
But the characteristic of the inventors is to neglect the obstacles of the present to consider only an ideal future, also as if we lived in this ideal world where ideas are received with attention and deference by those who do not have them, we let's consider some solutions that are obvious to this team of avant-garde ecologists but that will still surprise.
Long experience has taught us that good ideas are always recovered even if one forgets, silences or assassinates its inventors.
Mr. Gérard BEAU was almost interned and he would have stayed there without our support, this however made it possible to steal his ideas and ours which are widely used. With him we reported 35 classic solutions and we offered even more, it is no coincidence that today many large cities, including the city of Paris, use three-quarters of them. Here is what we can say on this subject in 1989 but almost everything was already said in 1960 and even before. Léonard de VINCI, still himself, already planned to separate pedestrian traffic from vehicle traffic in the streets and make the hearts of Venice, Florence or Genoa places without a vehicle
In the measures that we recall, it is obvious that Beau, Ferone de la Selva and their friends did not invent everything, moreover that important efforts are made by the national and municipal services and that our observations, which are desired objective, must be underlined which does not exclude that projects currently presented must be severely criticized because they increase the pressure on motorists without addressing the substantive problems.
Here is the list, updated in 1989, the proposed solutions:
Ps: the asterisk indicates the points still neglected, * in progress, ** little better to do, *** everything to do
THE ROAD NETWORK:
1 - improvement of general signage **
2 - night lighting of signaling and daytime lighting of underground passages at suitable levels to avoid glare and the “black hole” **
3 - delimitation of traffic queues *
4 - signposting of main routes **
5 - modulation and synchronization of traffic lights **
6 - removal of infrastructure obstacles ***
7 - standardization of the width of lanes in the countryside **
8 - elimination of three-lane roads for the benefit of four lanes **
9 - carrying out crossings that do not cut traffic, this by superimposed tracks **
10- realization of superimposed parallel tracks seismic on congested roads
11- enlargement bridges **
12- splitting of the exit and entry ramps of the underground passages.
13 - realization of axes with large traffics underground in cities, with parking lots, at important points: stations, administrative and commercial areas. **
14- successive positioning of exits and entries in this order so as not to cut the two circulations. **
1 - improvement of indications concerning public transport *
2 - laying of plans of the district, on a large scale, in public transport stations *
3 - optimization of public transport timetables **
4 - reduced expectations at stations and connections **
5 - putting into service of buses of different dimensions adapted to local variations and traffic schedules **
6 - implementation of double-decker buses ***
7 - modernization and improvement of metropolitan lines *
8 - construction of new lines *
9 - extension of current lines *
10- interconnection of SNCF and RER stations **
11- synchronization and optimization between SNCF, METROS, cars, buses, taxis and car parks for the public **
12 - installation of treadmills and elevators, accessibility study for the disabled.
THE PRIVATE TRANSPORT
1- Development taxis and rental cars without driver for individuals and goods **
2- Development carts, driverless, self-service, pre payment ***
3- Creation of “clubs” to operate these carts, around deterrent stations and parking lots ***
4 - development of “parks - wells” from fifteen to thirty places in order to resolve the parking of vehicles for residents of the agglomeration ***
5 - Development of collective, secure and humanized underground parks **
6 - Reservation and arrangement of sufficient areas, preferably underground for loading and unloading of goods **
7 - development of many cycle and pedestrian routes which may be at a different level from the lanes reserved for motor vehicles ***
8 - Creation of gardens - terraces on parking spaces of suitable height in the city center, connected to underground and surface networks in order to provide heavy truck stops, equipped with means of unloading on small vehicles that can ensure rapid local redistribution of loading **
9 - development of modular rail / road containers **
10 - development of bus stations with HGV and HGV parking lots to encourage the use of public transport: **
11- Sale of petrol giving entitlement to “collective” kilometers **
12 - downward revision of SNCF fares in order to encourage carriers to coordinate with rail over long distances ***
13 - development of the train - car with multiplication of access stations, without obligation to purchase a passenger ticket for wagon placement ***
14 - adjustment of the working hours of companies, shops, administrations, schools **
THE SPECIAL VEHICLES
1- development towns of vehicles not exceeding a footprint of 3 square meters on the ground, easily guarantor, low emissions, not on highways; **
2- development of fast vehicles but very studied on the security plan for touring; **
3 - development of cars not using fossil fuels: battery and solar electric, hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen, inertial engine, compressed gas: **
4 - development of the humidity control and the so-called water engine; ***
5 - improvement of the piloting assistance electronics; *
6 - internal limitation of vehicle speed; ***
7 - external speed limitation by electronic control; ***
8 - electronic traffic and weather information; *
1- vehicle purchases linked to two conditions: Availability of parking; possession of the appropriate vehicle license ***
2- Compulsory teaching of the highway code in primary school; **
3- driving license beginner as a compulsory subject to 16 years in all school options ***
4 - implementation of a “progressive” license depending on the driver's sense of responsibility and abilities **
5 - HGV license at three levels: beginner, city, main road ***
7 - Professional license at three levels: Delivery on passenger car and van; Delivery on P L. without tractor front end; Delivery on truck with trailer. **
6 - compulsory agricultural machinery license even in the fields ***
7 - special permits for drivers of construction machinery **
8- special permits for gear oversized and dangerous transport;
9- compulsory medical examination every 5 years or certificate of the doctor on sight, reflexes, self-control; ***
10- electronic tester by driving simulation in graduate rates for the progressions of the license; ***
11- Mandatory breathalyzer in the event of an accident; *
12- medical information coded on the driving license for emergency intervention in the event of an accident; (The green social security card does this job) *
13- Rewards for good drivers: **
14- Revision of the penal code in matters of offenses **
Human history and decisions sometimes collide. In this year commemorating the French Revolution, it is curious to note the gap between this anniversary of the revolution and the abolition of privileges and the authoritarian decisions taken by city officials.
DOMINATI Jacques, Paris councilor in charge of traffic problems in the city, has just proposed a pretty incredible plan to make this city their free movement:
- He wants to remove 100 surface parking spaces. To do this, it wishes to suppress, even more vigorously, the illegal parking of 000 users and remove 60 spaces on the surface;
- With regard to repression, the impoundment of vehicles, the increase in fines, the greater severity in matters of traffic offenses are clearly displayed on the walls of Paris. The police have: crane trucks which will each have to remove 700 vehicles per year; It will have undetectable radars against speeding and a unique, computerized military-style command that will monitor the whole of Ile de France and each district of Paris; its bikers are equipped with transceivers melted into helmets which improve their connections and allow them to intervene more quickly.
Among the major imbeciles that the administration of the city of Paris provided to its citizens we remember the famous skates of Denver.
If a car was annoying and well it was immobilized on the spot by this tool; one will judge the intelligence of the process since one replaced a discomfort of a few minutes by a long embarrassment. Some handy jokers had, by retaliation, been happy to fill their chests with these medieval devices, to the great fury of the authorities.
Another joy: the impoundment, this gave rise to a whole series of rackets, unjustified kidnappings, vehicle thefts, thefts of equipment in the poundages, the simple list of which would fill this book. In some cities, such as Toulon, the reactions were violent and the administration recovered its crane trucks in the port.
Paris does not yet seem to have to be a model for managing its traffic despite its electronics and some ideas more pleasant eg digging under the city a few lines of disgorging.
Knowing that legal parking in Paris has 720 spaces, including 000 on public roads, these projects are not balanced by the creation of compensatory legal parking. They can only meet hostility from users for this.
We note that this authoritarian approach does not call on innovative intelligence, common sense, the participation of associations and the public and will therefore encounter the worst sociological obstacles.
This company should stop gargling its "development" to re-envision its future plan which it does not see in its inevitable catastrophic perspective if nothing changes.
Some innovative ideas
1- Silos well-***
In the courtyards of buildings at least 14 meters long and 9 meters wide, G. Beau proposed to build wells 41 meters deep capable of accepting 20 or 30 light cars. Beau's idea was to have an elevator that automatically transports vehicles from one level to another, stores them automatically and comes back to pick them up on demand. Cars thus parked give off equivalent surfaces on public roads.
2- Aerial pedestrian and bicycle lanes ***
For many cities, their structures would allow the installation of tracks placed above congested lanes where pedestrians and cyclists would circulate on a new level of commercial value, the underlying sidewalk receiving deliveries and more parking lots. This interests at least one million users for Paris.
3- Overhead AERIAL ***
RATP and SNCF have always, rightly or wrongly, opposed the aerial monorail. This invention is however used elsewhere. It has advantages because it does not obstruct the public highway and can be combined with the previous proposal. The technology does not seem ripe at the moment, however, despite recent trials in Germany. It is a motorized cabin, suspended in its axis by two suspension trains on a raised beam rail. Its cost is lower than the metro but it can have aesthetic drawbacks.
The cities 4- tiered **
Subway in relatively deep basement, major traffic axes and handling levels above on the ground floor or 1 ° basement, pedestrian paths and shops at park level - gardens on the ground floor or in elevation. Apartments with large terraces set back above each with its micro - summer - winter garden.
5- The solar electric cars ***
The electric car is progressing, a new concept has appeared: its connection with the Sun. In many cities, parking lots could receive solar panels and charge batteries quietly; on the other hand at night, during off-peak hours, Electricité de France has kilowatts which are, whatever their origins, interesting to value. The low-capacity, space-saving electric car, low battery charge, fast charge or instant standard charge, with braking energy recovery. It is currently being studied almost everywhere but the necessary capital would be needed to accelerate its maturity.
Ecology Energy Survival presented in a first exposure Marjolaine there over thirty years!
6 - User clubs **
A fleet of electric carts used by club members, or by subscribers, would allow more freedom of movement. Rental cars or cars sold “timeshare” are already available but their costs are not dissuasive from the purchase. There are also paths to explore there.
7 - The hunt for ideas ***
The French are rich in ideas but French society does not know how to manage the capital of inventors that it owns. In an article we wrote for the inventors' journal we raised this problem.
There is a common error which confuses "The Inventor", the one who finds but who is as much an artist as an engineer of the "Researcher" who has the mission of explaining the invention and finding its laws and theoretical applications or the "Engineer" who makes an invention a marketable product and the "Professor" who must know the history of the invention, its theory, its applications and teach it to its students.
Solving problems as complicated as those of the circulation and communication of a big city without exploiting all the inventive and creative capacity that it contains shows the intellectual need of those who imagine they can, alone or almost, give it all the solutions. It is more necessary than ever to obtain a consensus between the different actors by a needy process of collective reflection.
This is the contribution of Gabriel Ferrone Rendez - you Ecology organized by Serge LEPELTIER, Minister of Ecology and Sustainable Development with Vincent Bollore. "ELECTRIC CAR MYTH OR REALITY" the 09 11 2004.