EXCERPTS FROM CRISIS AND DISASTER SURVIVAL
SEA written in 1989 Gabriel Ferrone.
- THE ROAD ARE SYMPAS
- CITY crowded
- THE PEDESTRIAN
- CYCLING AND RIDERS
- MOTORIST ransom
Transport is indispensable, but they are also sources of multiple disasters and to 15 20 000 deaths each year in France.
140 million tons of high-risk products crisscross the hexagon: explosive, flammable, corrosive, toxic, radioactive. They are transported by road 76%; 17% by rail; 7% by waterways. (Figures 1989) It's worse in 2004
The automobile kills an average of 5 10 at times as aviation and fifty times more than the train kilometer, according to the QUID 1989 (page 1448a)
The statistics are interesting, they allow to know the risks we incur for each mode of transport and to compare them.
In the world over 400 000 people are killed on the roads each year and 12 000 000 injured by the automobile and road transport. The consequences of road accidents tenth of French is more or less disabled.
Transport is more multiple causes pollution. Their simple operation, apart from accidents, is also due to congestion, pollution, disorders ..
"Transport policy in France has not evolved since 1970 where the road was given priority, while our neighbors understood that we had to bet on the rail. "
Road are nice
Road transport has been the main beneficiaries of growth. They rose 5% on average since 30 years through internationalization of traffic. The position of France is a transit area between England and Europe, between Northern Spain and Portugal and North and West Africa Europe. The share of trucks in the highway traffic reached almost 25%. And dozens of thousands of trucks, whose 4 fifths are more 19 borrow tons daily highway Paris - Lille, the most congested of France, and a continual increase heavyweight observed on each major axis. The Research Centre for the Study and Observation of Living (CREDOC) estimates that traffic will double before 2010. Market points win on the rail that is not defended and on waterways choked by the administration, road by their abundance and also by the way they impress scare motorists they gradually lose the image they were friendly to the public. They are involved in 6% of accidents but only those - these are 16% of victims. The Documentation Centre and the insurance information could verify that most trucks are bigger and the number of accidents in which they are involved is high.
Each truck must carry a speed recorder (chrono - tachograph) compulsory from 3,5 tons. This unit records on all vehicles over 3,5 tons a number of indication reached speeds, distances, working time and stop.
Speed is theoretically limited on motorways and trunk roads in 90 19 for under tons in 80 for over 19 80 tonnes and to transport hazardous materials; on other roads; respectively 80, 80 and 60 and 50 kilometers into town for all hours. Driving times are restricted to driving continuous 4h30 followed 45 minutes of downtime to a minimum; of 9 hours a day maximum and no more than six consecutive days.
Road federations want the total weight rolling permits be increased as in Germany 44 tonnes and the maximum width allowed trucks to be brought to 2,60 bolsters.
The rail link - road - barges - ships through containerization have been so successful sordid private interests taking precedence over the national interest had not left the train unable to develop childcare facilities and necessary boarding and these lobbies had not maintained waterways in the sorry state we know.
This mismanagement of transport is one of the causes of the bad position of France in international competition.
The congested City
We are inspired by the work of an old friend, Gerard BEAU, already in 1960 years said: But circulate involves stopping, loading and unloading passengers, baggage, cargo and when the vehicle is not in use must park in the parking lot so it makes gene or other motorists or cyclists and riders or pedestrians. The use of the car must be deferential to pedestrians and especially towards children with disabilities and the elderly ... >>
. (G. BEAUTIFUL, THE KINETIC URBAN, No. 15 of TECHNICAL REVIEW BUILDING AND INDIVIDUAL BUILDINGS).
Dominique LEGLU put "the pedestrian in equation" in the special issue 32 Sciences et Avenir and he taught us that it circulates, when no obstacle hinders, between 46 and 112 meters per minute, from the lambin to the most agitated. The more pedestrians there are, the less they can circulate.
The pedestrian is frowned upon in France where the shoulders are impassable and deadly roads for him. City sidewalks are basically there to greet him but that there do we find it! Insidious obstacle between the pad protruding from the ill-fitting manhole cover, various objects abandoned, garbage and multitude of posts and temporary buildings, he walks with difficulty on a greasy ground, littered with waste and excrement, despite the efforts of road services. A major cause of this disease is poor coordination between energy distributors and digging water every man for himself as he had been right to do underground where workers of different services can move and where pipes can be monitored and maintained or changed without disturbing the soil.
The obstacles that pedestrian encounter are numerous, especially in the city, and some irremediable as kill almost 300 pedestrians annually victims of motor, two wheels, various obstacles; one killed on 6 is a child.
All combined road accidents killed 1 212 1970 children which was a very difficult year, in 1986 650 more pedestrians were killed and more than 25 000 were seriously injured.
The pedestrian is often frowned upon by the motorized driver who tends to forget that he is first a pedestrian. Some pedestrians are careless, do not respect the signs, embark carelessly through the flow of vehicles and do not know it takes each driver time to react and a distance for braking proportional to the square of the speed. .
Speeding in agglomeration crossing is, therefore, criminal.
Disaster imposing abandoned vehicles, lack of fuel, for example, walking is mandatory, and many will find themselves very disabled, the majority of people who have lost the habit of walking.
The evacuation of public places disaster is also a problem with walking and often the removal rate determines the extent of the tragedy. Who knows that if more emergency evacuation 250 people per minute can escape through a corridor of one meter wide if they walk in and out of sync with their hands on the shoulders of those before them! In a confused situation, the same corridor one meter wide barely allows the evacuation of 70 people per minute.
The "little queen" is what was called the bicycle in the 1930 years, has lost its prestige, it is now the "bike", it kills little but is the victim of others it is between 4 and 500 cyclists who die in France every year and 8 9 000 go to the hospital for longer or shorter stays. Note that since the arrival of mountain bikes that have excited many cyclists.
Mopeds multiply that number by two and a half, mopeds and motorcycles still stretch to achieve in the decade 80 / 90 a total of over 2 000 killed and nearly 60 000 injured for motorcycles each year. These dramas especially reach young people under 25 years.
It is notable that France does not do much to encourage the use of bicycles, reserved lanes are non-existent, poorly designed, impassable.
We were particularly interested in the motorists of the City of Paris, with the ecologist party "LES VERTS" in I981, and we made some very unpleasant observations:
While this city is swamped with cars, many open parking spaces, more than 120 000, disappeared, eroded by governments who reserve them.
Some were suppressed for obscure reasons that are not entirely foreign to the interests of dealers of underground parking;
- 60 000 covered places have disappeared because many garages were bought by developers who have not complied with the planning regula preferring sometimes pay a fine or a bribe rather than building the required number of seats and many garages have been turned into warehouses by traders or individuals; secondly the last decades of law that many landlords who refuse to rent vacant space thus generating locations;
- We realized that some of the parking meters were placed, not on public property but on sidewalks, private property, under the responsibility of owners who are completely unaware that a victim of an accident caused by these devices may backfire against them ;
- How many parking meters are not approved and no control can be exercised over the amounts collected, much of which is diverted!
Our investigation continued in Issy les Moulineaux and Le Mans and found the same abnormalities. Justice, informed by us, is discreetly veiled face in these three cities.
Regarding RATP relatively uncomfortable buses it offers to users are victims of the army and republican security companies that require rapid transformation in their use when needed.
RER subway is too deep because it has vaguely been designed as a bomb shelter but it would serve no purpose in a conflict because it is not equipped with locks, air and heat filters, reserve areas, etc. These facilities can not be improvised in a few weeks for a set of works of this magnitude. Note that in 2004 the situation is not much better in this area.
The motorist to ransom
Take 1979 / 1980 year: the motorist was fleeced on gas, the sticker, insurance, VAT 33%, the state pocketed and 13,8% of its revenue, about 10 000 francs per vehicle total 108 billion francs household and automotive had a collective cost of about 120 billion. The street congestion caused damage which was estimated at 1 000 francs per month per vehicle. And at least 20 billion francs of medical costs were paid by Social Security to treat its victims. The automobile need 70% of import materials and it caused the influx of foreign labor. Its technology requiring fewer low-skilled labor, it has been a major source of unemployment in recent years we said in 1989. Not German manufacturers that we contredirons in 2004
We have identified in 79 / 80 more than 50 000 "traps" for motorists with malfunctioning parking meters. The SAEMES which managed them seemed in good financial health, the ACDS which protected certain car parks too.
Signage of paid parking does not meet most of the requirements of the order of 23 November 1967, supplemented by the judgment of 7 June 1977 which provides the regulatory panel (B6-B4). In the absence of this sign the motorist can not be prosecuted for infringement. The Prefecture of Paris turned this difficulty by the fact of the Prince: a stop 1ø December 1986 making it "optional" and responds with an end of no reception to unfortunate motorists who protest.
Yet it has been found, as recalled Mr. Stéphane Levi, by the Supreme Court, dated 25 March 1987 (Bull. Crim 1987 No. 141) that the arrested was unlawful and that each parking area should be clearly delimited the regulatory panel. The article 530 of the Code of Criminal Procedure provides, within ten days after the arrival of a warning to a fine, the person concerned to lodge a complaint with the Public Ministry, which nullified the enforceable. The police court prosecutors can prosecute the alleged perpetrator, holder of the logbook, before the police court who it belongs to prove the guilt of the claimant. Article L21 1-establishing the alleged responsibility of the holder of the permit does not comply with Article 6-2 of the European Convention on Human Rights ratified by France on November 5 1950, published only the March 3 1974.
The scandalous cycling corridors absolutely not protect their users are also good ways to transform the conduct of Parisian motorists in slalom and force them to fault and hanging.
The driver is not a citizen enjoying his civil rights in full, it is only probation, punished at every turn and sometimes irrelevant. In this connection, when considering projects of the city of Paris (in 1989) it is surprising to the extent of the repressive side as possible work to improve this situation is not undertaken. At about everywhere in France, the public power for traffic and parking was extremely negligent in the twenty five years and it focuses motorists the weight of his incompetence and his carelessness.