Green houses with positive energy in France, an appointment not to be missed? Research thesis at the end of studies M2irt 2009, by Marion Lepage. .pdf of 30 pages
Introduction and definitions
What if my house produced more energy than it consumes, while preserving Nature?
This is the concept of the “positive energy green house”. To do this, it is necessary for it to combine two essential qualities for Man, as we would like to see him evolve at the dawn of the XNUMXst century: a house that respects the Environment and is economical in
energy consumption. However, these two terminologies, which are as distinct as they are inseparable, should not be confused when approaching this notion of "positive house".
As a first example, if we talk about an ecological house (green), we do not describe a positive house. This responds to possible solutions for a habitat that takes the environment into account more than its own economic value. Currently, everything "green" is still too expensive, in France as elsewhere.
This is why I will endeavor to recall certain basic definitions of these “green” houses, which are as healthy for the planet as for their occupants.
An ecological house is built with 100% natural and recyclable materials. To a large extent, it takes into account the hidden energy, known as “embodied energy”, which defines in particular the release of CO2 and other greenhouse gases over the entire cycle of production, transport, maintenance and maintenance. recycling of building materials.
In general, natural materials have a much lower hidden energy than those produced industrially. And a material as ecological as possible should generate zero gray energy.
Although taking up ideas that are sometimes infinitely similar, a climate house is built according to the climate, valuing its advantages and protecting itself from its disadvantages. More optimized, the bioclimatic house exceeds the previous one by exploiting its plant and mineral environment in order to ensure its thermal regulation, bête noire of the energy expenditure of a current individual dwelling. A bioclimatic house takes the step towards a more economical house, because it consumes less non-renewable energies to regulate its interior temperature.
Thus, today there are three degrees of economic houses in energy:
A house considered "low consumption" must respect standards, such as High
Energy Performance (HPE), and will consume on average three times less than a traditional home.
Better designed, a so-called "passive" house relies on extreme insulation, in order to reduce its energy requirements as much as possible to conserve heat in winter and coolness in summer. It is therefore designed to spend as little energy as possible: maximum insulation to protect against heat loss due to thermal bridges, materials that store energy, an orientation designed to take maximum advantage of solar radiation, as well as a simple form limiting architectural complications (sources of loss
Maximum optimization is therefore currently represented by the so-called “positive” house. That is to say a self-sufficient house which manufactures and controls its own energy, which can even very quickly exceed its own needs. The natural resources made available to it, such as solar energy, geothermal energy or even wind power, are used to the maximum. It incorporates all the energy saving techniques mentioned above, while adopting the most recent technological developments to produce, maintain and control all energy needs (heat, electricity, water). Home automation is making its way far beyond the simple gadget
Ultimately, the positive house becomes completely autonomous, but its development comes up against many constraints, especially economic ones. The same paradox will arise when considering a positive house made of ecological materials. In this sense, it is therefore a matter of studying how a house can be as ecological and as profitable as possible, both energetically and financially.
I am targeting my thesis on the single-family house since it represents the preferred habitat of the French with a market share of over 56% of buildings. For several years now, there have been solutions to reduce energy consumption in the home, but they were not really developed in France.
Through this thesis, I want to see how things could evolve, especially as this field is starting to democratize. The economic component is of particular interest to me, and I would like to understand why the construction of a positive house is not widespread, given its many economic advantages compared to a traditional house. Because the financial interest is not only individual (the inhabitant), given that a true innovative market could very quickly be set up (builders, developers, architects, interviews, etc…).
This choice was also supported by the growing interest in this subject among my acquaintances. Myself, I will have to think and design my own future habitat.
If sustainable development is at the heart of the news, the main concern of the majority of French people remains their purchasing power, of which housing is the main item of consumption. Would considering and attempting to reconcile these two concerns turn out to be an ideological whim, an avant-garde utopia or quite simply an ingenious progression?
Can a house be fully autonomous energetically, and moreover fully integrate into the environment? Is it possible to want to apply it to the current French economic context?