Green houses with positive energy in France, an appointment not to be missed? Research thesis M2irt 2009, by Marion Lepage. .pdf of 30 pages
Introduction and definitions
What if my house produced more energy than it consumes, while preserving Nature?
Here is the concept of the “positive energy green house”. To do this, it is necessary that it brings together two essential qualities for Man, as we would like to see it evolve at the dawn of the XNUMXst century: a house that respects the Environment and is economical in
energy consumption. However, these two terminologies, as distinct as inseparable, must not be confused in order to approach this notion of “positive house”.
As a first example, if we speak of an ecological (green) house, we are in no way describing a positive house. This responds to possible solutions for a habitat that takes more account of the environment than its own economic value. Currently, everything “green” is still too expensive, in France as elsewhere.
This is why I will endeavor to recall certain basic definitions of these “green” houses, healthy as much for the planet as for their occupants.
An ecological house is built with 100% natural and recyclable materials. In large part, it takes into account the hidden energy, known as “gray energy”, which notably defines the release of CO2 and other greenhouse gases over the entire production, transport, maintenance and recycling of building materials.
In general, natural materials have a much lower hidden energy than those produced industrially. And a material as ecological as possible should generate zero gray energy.
Although taking up ideas that are sometimes infinitely close, a climatic house is built according to the climate, valuing its advantages and protecting itself from its disadvantages. More optimized, the bioclimatic house exceeds the previous one by exploiting its plant and mineral environment in order to ensure its thermal regulation, a bane of the energy expenditure of a current individual dwelling. A bioclimatic home is taking the step towards a more economical house, because it remains less consuming in non-renewable energy to regulate its indoor temperature.
Thus, today there are three degrees of economic houses in energy:
A house considered "low consumption" must meet standards, such as High
Energy Performance (HPE), and will consume on average three times less than traditional housing.
Better designed, a so-called “passive” house relies on extreme insulation, in order to minimize its energy needs to conserve heat in winter and cool in summer. It is then studied to spend the least energy possible: maximum insulation to protect against heat losses due to thermal bridges, materials that store energy, an orientation thought to benefit from the maximum of solar radiation, as well as a simple form limiting architectural complications (sources of losses
Maximum optimization is therefore currently represented by the so-called “positive” house. In other words, a self-sufficient house that manufactures and controls its own energy, which can even very quickly exceed its own needs. The natural resources at its disposal, such as solar energy, geothermal energy or even wind power are used to the maximum. It incorporates all the energy saving techniques mentioned above, while acquiring the most recent technological developments to produce, maintain and control all energy needs (heat, electricity, water). Home automation is making its way far beyond the simple gadget
Ultimately, the positive house becomes fully autonomous, but its development faces many constraints, particularly economic. The same paradox will arise when considering a positive house made of ecological materials. In this sense, it is therefore a question of studying how a house can be the most ecological and the most profitable possible, energetically as financially.
I target my dissertation on the individual house since it represents the preferred habitat of the French with a market share of more than 56% of the built. For several years now, there have been solutions to reduce energy consumption in the home, but they were not really developed in France.
Through this thesis, I would like to see how things could evolve, especially since this field is starting to democratize. The economic component is of particular interest to me, and I would like to understand why the construction of a positive house is not generalized, given its many economic advantages in comparison with a traditional house. Because the financial interest is not only individual (the inhabitant), given that a real innovative market could very quickly be set up (builders, promoters, architects, interviews, etc.).
This choice was also supported by the growing interest in this subject among my acquaintances. Myself, I will be led to think and design my own future habitat.
If sustainable development is at the heart of the news, the main concern of the majority of French remains their purchasing power, whose housing is the main item of consumption. Would considering and trying to bring these two concerns together reveal an ideological fad, an avant-garde utopia or simply an ingenious progression?
Can a house be fully autonomous energetically, and moreover fully integrate into the environment? Is it conceivable to want to apply it to the current French economic context?