Synthesis on farming techniques without plowing or TSL TCSL
Summary prepared by V. Goldberg, EPN Rambouillet
No-till cultivation techniques took off in the 1930s to fight against wind and water erosion of soils in the Americas.
Note that the replacement of the plow by the chisel or heavy cultivator is an ancient practice in organic farming.
Variety TCSL or TSL
- Simplified cultural techniques (TCS) = also called Complicated Sowing Techniques
- TCS soil conservation techniques (defined by APAD)
- Tillage conservation defined by any tillage system that leaves at least 30 percent of soil cover by residue after sowing
- No till (no tillage)
- Sowing under plant cover (SCV), developed by CIRAD.
- Pseudo-plowing or decompaction is a work of the soil (15 to 30 cm) in depth
- Surface tillage is carried out between 5 and 10 cm approximately
- Direct sowing is sowing on unworked soil. Only the sowing line is worked by sowing units sometimes accompanied by various equipment. Direct sowing can also make use of animated tools which only work the sowing line (according to J. Labreuche from ARVALIS), so we speak of minimum work.
For Y. Le Bissonnais from INRA, direct sowing is the establishment of the crop in a single pass without tillage or with shallow tillage, either over the entire surface or only on the sowing line.