Chemistry term as part of the study process pétroléïque Laigret. Definitions by Thierry Saint germs, November 30 2008.
Biochemistry definitions from H to Z
Download the .pdf version of these definitions
acid: hydrogenated chemical compound, the dissolution in water provides hydrogen ions and which, thereby, has a set of properties characterizing the acid function.
Acetic acid : Acid of vinegar owes its flavor and its properties. CH3CO2H formula, this is the type of organic monobasic acids of the aliphatic series. This is the oxidation product of ethyl alcohol with elimination of water.
= amino acid Amino acid: generic body having both amine and acid, which are the essential materials of living matter.
butyric acid: The normal butyric acid, or butanoic CH3CH2CH2CO2H, met with the state of glyceride in butter, is prepared by fermentation of sugar or starch.
oleic acid or ethylenically acid: CH3 of formula (CH2) 7CH = CH (CH2) 7CO2H is formed in the saponification of fats. It may fix two hydrogen atoms to give stearic acid.
acyl: Generic name of RCO radicals - existing in the carboxyl acids.
alkali: Generic Name alkali metal hydroxides and ammonium hydroxide. Marine or mineral alkali, soda, vegetable alkali, potash, volatile alkali, ammonia.
Alkalis, the main ones are sodium hydroxide NaOH and potassium hydroxide KOH caustic, are very soluble in water; that are strong bases, giving with the acid alkali salts.
alcohol: Generic term for bodies with the same chemical properties as ordinary alcohol. "Alcohols" are compounds derived from hydrocarbons by substitution of an OH hydroxyl with a hydrogen atom bound to a saturated carbon. The official nomenclature assigns to the alcohols the name of the carbide from which they derive and in which the final e is replaced by the suffix -ol; a numbering is necessary in case of ambiguity.
Eg. CH3OH [methanol]
CH3-CH = CH-CH2OH [butene-ol-2 1]
ethyl alcohol or ethanol: It is often designated by the name of alcohol, without qualification. Its formula is CH3CH2OH. There in the composition of wines, beers, ciders, spirits.
aldehyde: volatile liquid CH3CHO formula, resulting from the oxidation of the alcohol, and prototype of a series of bodies called also aldehydes by analogy.
aliphatic: (Gr. Aleiphar, -Atos, fat). Said organic body open chain.
amide: generic name for compounds derived from ammonia or an amine by substitution of acyl radicals to hydrogen.
amine: generic name of compounds formed by substitution of monovalent hydrocarbon radicals hydrogen to ammonia.
ammonia: gas combination of nitrogen and hydrogen NH3.
ammonium: Name of univalent radical NH4, which acts as alkali metal salts of ammonia.
anhydride: Body whose formula results from that of an oxy-acid by elimination of water between the hydroxyls.
nitrogen: gas simple substance, which is about four-fifth of the air. The nitrogen cycle is the series of transformations through which nitrogen circulates between the mineral, vegetable and animal. Its chemical formula N. It is the seventh element from the periodic classification of elements.
bacillus: (Latin: bacillus, small stick) Name given to all bacteria which have the shape of a stick.
bacteria: (Greek: baktêria, stick) name given to a group of unicellular beings, simple structure, diffuse core, and reproducing by binary fission. Some bacteria require oxygen (aerobic), others do not support free oxygen (anaerobic), but many can adapt to the presence or absence of this gas (mixed or facultative anaerobes). Enzymatic wealth gives them intense biochemical activity. Their proliferation is only possible within certain temperature limits; Soil bacteria grow at room temperature, pathogenic bacteria, and between 37 40 ° C.
barite: Oxide or barium hydroxide.
barium: (Gr. Barus, heavy). Alkaline earth metal, like calcium. Barium is the 56 element, atomic mass Ba = 137,36. Posted in 1774 by Scheele, who distinguished barite lime, it was isolated by Davy in 1808. It is a white metal. It oxidizes in air and decomposes water cold. It is in its bivalent compounds, which are very similar to those of calcium. It is the preparing in the laboratory, from its natural sulphate (barytes) or its natural carbonate (witherite).
base: chemical body capable of neutralizing an acid by combining with it. The bases are hydroxides, usually metal, which provides ionization OH- ions.
Culture broth: Broth, sterilized, for microorganism culture.
pitch: Residue of the partial evaporation or fractional distillation of oils, tars and other organic matter.
Brome: (Gr. Bromos, stench) Discovered by Balard 1826 in the mother liquors of salt, near Montpellier, bromine is the 35 element, atomic mass Br = 79,92. It is a dark red liquid, unpleasant odor, three times more dense than water. It is slightly soluble in water (bromine water).
butyrin: Butyric triester of glycerol, a butter constituents.
butyric: The normal butyric acid or butanoic CH3CH2CH2CO2H, met with the state of glyceride in butter, is prepared by fermentation of sugar or starch me; This is a thick liquid, rancid odor.
calcium: (Lat. Calx, calcis, hot). The most common metal of the alkaline earth group. Isolated by Davy in 1808, 20 calcium is the chemical element of atomic mass Ca = 40,08. It is a solid white, soft. It oxidizes in air to form the bright hot CaO, and also combines with hydrogen, halogen, nitrogen. Very simplistic, it decomposes water cold. It is bivalent in its compounds.
capric: Refers to an acid found in butter, which melts at 31 ° C.
caproic: Said of a fatty acid found in the state of glyceride (caproïne) in butter and coconut oil.
carbonate: Salt or ester of a carbonic acid.
carbon: Carbon is the chemical element 6, atomic mass C = 12,01.
carbonic: Anhydride, or carbon dioxide, one of the carbon oxides, of formula CO2.
carbide: bit combination of carbon with another element.
carboxyl: Univalent radical CO2H characteristic of organic acids.
Carboxyl or carboxylic acid: Said bodies that contain the carboxyl group.
catalysis: (Gr. Katalusis, dissolution). Action of a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without appearing to take part. Examples of catalysis are very numerous, and the catalysts.
caustic: (Lat causticus;. The gr kaustikos;. Of kaiein, burn). That attack, which corrodes the animal and plant tissues: caustic liquid. caustic soda.
Chaux: (Lat. Calx). CaO calcium oxide, or hot lively, forming the base of the limestone is a refractory white solid. Caustic quicklime is very thirsty for water, which turns with a large heat release, slaked or hydrated lime Ca (OH) 2.
chlorine: Discovered by Scheele in 1774, chlorine is the chemical element 17, atomic mass Cl = 35,46. It is a greenish-yellow gas, suffocating smell, dangerous to breathe.
hydrochloric: Said HCl acid, combination of chlorine and hydrogen.
chloride: Combination of chlorine with a simple corp or a radical.
Decanting or decanting: Separation by gravity difference, immiscible products, such as water and an oil.
decoction: Action boil the plants in a liquid.
Enzime: (Gr. In, in, and Zume leaven). Proteinaceous catalyst, heat labile, capable of acting outside the cell or the medium that produces it.
ester: A carboxylic acid R-CO2H reacts on an alcohol R'OH in forming the R-CO2H ester and water; This reaction, called "esterification", is reversible. I replace as often in the preparation of the ester, the acid by its chloride or its anhydride.
The most known esters are ethyl acetate, solvent, synthesizing agent and antispasmodic, and amyl acetate, cellulosic varnish solvent. Many are contained in natural or artificial fragrances. Finally, the fatty substances are triesters of glycerol.
ether: organic compound resulting from the combination, with removal of water, an alcohol with an acid or an alcohol.
fermentation: Transformation undergone by the organic materials under the action of different enzyme secreted by microorganisms.
fluid: (Lat Fluidus;. Of fluere, sink) Refers to own form without a body, which take the form of vases containing them and can flow.
The general term fluid refers to liquids and gas, which have common properties.
Fluor: single body, the first element of the halogen family. Fluorine is the chemical element of atomic number and atomic mass 9 F = 19. It was isolated by Moissan in 1886. It is a pale yellow gas, irritating odor, difficult to liquefy. It is the most electronegative of all chemical elements and unites almost all other single body, with a big heat.
formate: Salt or ester of formic acid.
formic: (Lat. Formica ant) Refers to the HCO2H acid and the corresponding aldehyde
fraction: petroleum product obtained by fractionation. (Syn. Cup.)
agar: consistency gelatinous substance, extracted from different seaweed.
glucose: (Gr. Glukus soft) Sugar starch CH2OH- formula (CHOH) 4-CHO.
glyceride: Generic Name esters of glycerine.
Glycerin or glycerol: Trialcohol formula CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH. It exists in the state of ester of fatty acids in fats and oils. The industry separates as a byproduct of the hydrolysis of fats. It is water miscible.