by Jean-Marc Lefevre, President of the PCDDEI (Platform, Communication, Sustainability, Industrial Ecology)
With 25% of global emissions of greenhouse gases, the United States, alongside Australia, figure as "bad students" of the Kyoto Academy. Castigated by NGOs of all kinds, yet they announce ambitious economic and scienti fi to reduce their emissions. Announcement effect or liberalism cleverly thought?
A national ... global map
Buenos Aires, the return? 7 years after the Fourth Conference of the Parties, the world's governments met in the Argentine capital to consider the nearby entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol on February 16 2005, and take stock of progress. As in the "version1" in the same place, the US arrive without a signature, but with major statements and a post-Kyoto plan, the Climate Vision, which seems basically credible by the dollars it mobilizes.
In 1997, the US had announced in Buenos Aires discovery, appropriately, huge deposits of CO2 "stored" in the US, in forests in national parks, and even in deep geological layers. NGOs anger, fury European countries that had much to do to reach agreement among themselves, splashing happily in their "bubble". Nevertheless: the USA continued their path, especially on carbon sinks, they managed to formalize 2003 in June, with the International Forum on Carbon Sequestration (CSLF), which also won 15 States EU (including France). It no longer really to count hectares of forests, but to store carbon dioxide at source from industrial or large cogeneration in the "trapping" in salt cavities, end oil well operating or in disused mines. Coal is an important issue for the US, which now hold
22,9% of world reserves (36,2% for Asia). It was therefore quite natural that one of the great programs "greenhouse effect anti-" is the Future Gen, announced in 2002, that is to say, the combined production of electricity and hydrogen from coal with sequestration CO2 product, or processing in supercritical CO2 (an excellent solvent).
1 billion on $ 10 years (funded partly by the US government).
That's what interested countries highly dependent on this primary resource ... especially if they are in the group of least developed countries, potential beneficiaries of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism)! While carbon sequestration is not yet officially enters these mechanisms of flexibility, one of the goals of the US in Buenos Aires is to integrate them into the new global accounting. As many credits that will be store directly on American soil, in the name of global solidarity on reducing the greenhouse effect.
Alongside FutureGen, there is also one of the US priorities: hydrogen and its applications in the road transport. This is the Freedom Cars program, which aims to generalize fuel cells for all production vehicles, particularly trucks, by 2020. Estimated savings: 500 million tons of CO2 per year for the United States alone, who have succeeded on that shot, to obtain the support of most industrial countries.
Agriculture ordered to reduce emissions
In February 2002 was the US Department of Agriculture which passed under the forks of reducing greenhouse gases. Objective: 12 million tons of carbon-equivalent saved by 2012, particularly with proactive programs to preserve forests, but also the establishment of "biogas" to agricultural waste, intensive reforestation (especially in protected areas ), and very educational methods for farms to enable them financial valuation of their sequestration rates. No doubt, the US massively play LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use Conservation and Forestry), the clean development mechanism originally imagined to preserve the Amazon rainforest ...