Water injection on Citroën Zx-Td

Presentation of a personal modification by doping with water derived from the “Pantone” process and carried out on a 1.9 ZX-TurboDiesel (92L, 220000 HP, 1992 km) (Conducted between August and April 2002 2004 by Christophe Martz, mechanical engineer and Olivier, technician engine exclusively with private funds)

This achievement was made following the meeting with Olivier wishing to experiment with the water doping system on his own Zx Turbo Diesel.

After a few months of pre-study (temperature and pressure measurements, etc.) Olivier set to work. The prototype started up a few months later.

Since we have devoted ourselves to improving the basic assembly, many questions have been able to be answered but many uncertainties persist… only a real study with laboratory resources would allow them to be resolved.

To get an overview of the work done: more than 1000 hours of work spread over 18 months and more than 20 messages were exchanged in order to understand and try to master the system as well as possible and adapt it to our prototype, in an automated way.

Following this page is a presentation of our prototype.

Olivier and Christophe, the 20 May 2004.

Current state of development

Here are some photographs of our prototype, click on each photo to enlarge.

1) Principle used for the modification. This is a simple injection of “water” in parallel with the conventional supply circuit, without any modification to the latter.

Scheme from the site

2) Double reactor mounted bypassing the exhaust flow. Dimensions: 2 times 21/16 and rod of 14/300 mm.

3) Inside the evaporator preheated by coolant.

4) Double evaporator for making constant.

5) Water tank in the trunk.

6) Overview of the electronic management system (for version "2") produced by automotive relay and various modules.

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Following performance from the change (Our interpretation in italics) :

Preliminary, reminder of the test conditions:

Test conditions:
1) Tests carried out on more than 10 000 km. (The uncertainties related to climate variations or driving behavior are excluded.)
2) The system is switched on for about 80% of the path (approximately 50 km) tests. (The rest of the time are the start-up and / or slows)3) the test route is divided as follows: 1/5 motorway, 1/5 town, 2/5 departmental and 1/5 small mountains. (These driving conditions are therefore representative of a varied use of the vehicle's engine range. They therefore validate the process for most automotive uses.)

Performance installation:

1) motor power (in original, new engine manufacturer data):

-1000 DA m: s 33.63. (34 s)
maximum -Speed: 190 km / h (185 km / h)
- 0 to 100 km / h: 11.43 s (12 s)

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The performances are slightly better (or substantially equal) to a new engine out of the assembly line. We estimate that approximately 5% gain power / torque.

2) engine Consumption

- Origin (system off): 7.2 L / 100 km
- Modified (system on): 5.7 L / 100 km
- Water consumption: from 1 to 1.5 L / 100km depending on weather conditions (depending on T ° and therefore the ambient humidity)

The gain in consumption is therefore of the order of 20% (assuming the power retained). We achieve the performance of high pressure injection diesel engines of HDI type or other for a much lower cost and especially a technology adaptable to existing industrial engines. This is not the case with HDI technology.

3) Engine Pollution

The only test we were able to perform was the smoke opacity test at half speed and without engine load.

Results: 1.8 / m to 1.1 / m, ie 40% reduction.
(Made with an approved appliance)

A 40% reduction in black smoke is directly linked to an improvement in combustion in the engine. The mechanisms linked to this improved combustion by water injection are still poorly understood and require further investigation. Indeed, the theory (and the practice) would like that an injection of water (therefore a decrease in the temperature of the chamber) degrades the combustion and therefore on the contrary increases the black smoke. This is also what we can see when we want to lower Nox (nitrogen oxides) by injecting water: the Nox rate drops but that of unburnt (therefore fumes) increases.

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The following ?

The fact of bringing superheated water into the engine improves combustion which results in an increase in engine efficiency of around 20% and a more consequent reduction in pollution. We assume that the same gain (see greater if some of our hypotheses are confirmed) is possible on last generation high pressure direct injection engines (gasoline or diesel)

The effectiveness of the process is therefore validated…. but (taking into account the means of private individuals at our disposal) not yet fully mastered in its entirety!

For that we are currently experiencing a second version, fully électronisée and we tried to make independent the maximum settings to better understand the process.

We reasonably think that we have reached today the limits of development of the system with our means of individuals. We are looking for industrial or university partners wishing to develop applications around water injection in thermal engines. Because only industrial and / or laboratory resources will make it possible to go further, to undoubtedly improve the results and in all cases to go towards an understanding of water injection in heat engines. ..

For more information, see the additional pages:

- The end of engineering studies report
- The report Appendices figures
- The figures for pollution
- About Mr Pantone

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